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DNA Structure. DNA Structure. DNA consists of two molecules that are arranged into a ladder-like structure called a Double Helix . A molecule of DNA is made up of millions of tiny subunits called Nucleotides . Each nucleotide consists of: Phosphate group Pentose sugar Nitrogenous base.

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DNA

Structure


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DNA Structure

  • DNA consists of two molecules that are arranged into a ladder-like structure called a Double Helix.

  • A molecule of DNA is made up of millions of tiny subunits called Nucleotides.

  • Each nucleotide consists of:

    • Phosphate group

    • Pentose sugar

    • Nitrogenous base


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Nucleotides

Phosphate

Nitrogenous

Base

Pentose

Sugar


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Nucleotides

  • The phosphate and sugar form the backbone of the DNA molecule, whereas the bases form the “rungs”.

  • There are four types of nitrogenous bases.


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Nucleotides

A

T

C

Adenine

Thymine

G

Guanine

Cytosine


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Nucleotides

  • Each base will only bond with one other specific base.

  • Adenine (A)

  • Thymine (T)

  • Cytosine (C)

  • Guanine (G)

Form a base pair.

Form a base pair.


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DNA Structure

  • Because of this complementary base pairing, the order of the bases in one strand determines the order of the bases in the other strand.


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A

T

A

A

A

T

T

T

C

C

C

G

G

G


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DNA Structure

  • To crack the genetic code found in DNA we need to look at the sequence of bases.

  • The bases are arranged in triplets called codons.

    A G G - C T C - A A G - T C C - T A G

    T C C - G A G - T T C - A G G - A T C


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DNA Structure

  • A gene is a section of DNA that codes for a protein.

  • Each unique gene has a unique sequence of bases.

  • This unique sequence of bases will code for the production of a unique protein.

  • It is these proteins and combination of proteins that give us a unique phenotype.


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DNA

Gene

Protein

Trait


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Your Task

  • Draw a flow chart to show how to get from:


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