Differences in Culture. Differences in Culture. Societies’ differ along cultural dimensions What is culture? How/why do social structure, religion, language influence cultural differences? What are differences between culture and values in the workplace (corporate culture)?
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dress code; table manners; timeliness
Why doesn’t McDonald’s sell hamburgers in India?
Why were 3M executives perplexed concerning lukewarm sales of Scotch-Brite floor cleaner in the Philippines?
“the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group over another… Culture, in this sense, includes systems of values; and values are among the building blocks of culture”
“Nation” is a useful:
Unit of social organization: individual or group?
Society may be stratified into classes or castes
The individual: building block of many Western societies
Managerial mobility between companies
Economic dynamism, innovation
Good general skills
Team work difficult, non-collaborative
Exposure to different ways of doing business
e.g., U.S. companies
Loyalty and commitment to company
In-depth knowledge of company
Easy to build teams, collaboration
Emotional identification with group or company
e.g., Japanese companiesIndividual vs Group Societal Characteristics
When Gerber started selling baby food in Africa, they used US packaging with the smiling baby on the label.
In Africa, companies routinely put pictures on labels of what’s inside, since many people can’t read.
Pepsi’s “Come Alive With the Pepsi Generation” in Chinese translated into
“Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back From the Grave”
Coca-Cola’s name in China was first read as “Kekoukela”, meaning “Bite the wax tadpole” or “female horse stuffed with wax”, depending on the dialect.
Coke then researched 40,000 characters to find a phonetic equivalent “kokou kole”, translating into “happiness in the mouth.”
Yes, if they reduce uncertainty about what expatriate can expect.
No, if used to label an individual unlike the stereotype
1.Describe culture using Hofstede’s Model
2.Estimate cultural impact on management
• Strategic planning: Futile? How much information needed?
• Employee motivation: Security or money reward? Immediate or long-term rewards?
• Employee monitoring and control: Rules or trust?
• Decision making: overcoming problems or seizing opportunities?