Descriptive epidemiology for public health professionals part 1
Download
1 / 30

descriptive epidemiology for public health professionals part 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 234 Views
  • Uploaded on

DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY for Public Health Professionals Part 1. Ian R.H. Rockett, PhD, MPH Department of Community Medicine West Virginia University School of Medicine. Prepared under the auspices of the Southeast Public Health Training Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2005.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'descriptive epidemiology for public health professionals part 1' - Samuel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Descriptive epidemiology for public health professionals part 1 l.jpg

DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGYfor Public Health Professionals Part 1

Ian R.H. Rockett, PhD, MPH

Department of Community Medicine

West Virginia University School of Medicine

Prepared under the auspices of the Southeast Public Health Training Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2005.

[email protected]


Learning objectives l.jpg

Learning Objectives

To introduce some key historical contributors to the evolution of epidemiology

To present basic models of disease and injury

To address data sources, classification, and measurement

To build a bridge between descriptive and analytic epidemiology


Performance objectives l.jpg

Performance Objectives

To be sensitive to the history of epidemiology against the background of broad population change

To identify mortality and morbidity data sources

To calculate basic measures

To generate hypotheses from descriptive data



The big population picture l.jpg

The Big Population Picture

Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 38.


The demographic transition l.jpg

The Demographic Transition

The demographic transition framework illustrates population growth in terms of discrepancies and changes in two crude vital rates – mortality and fertility (ignores the third component of growth, migration)


Slide7 l.jpg

Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 39.


Top 10 causes of death in the u s 1900 l.jpg
Top 10 Causes of Death in the U.S. , 1900 Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 39.


Slide9 l.jpg

Top 10 Causes of Death in the U.S. , 2000 Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 39.


Slide10 l.jpg

Source: Ian R.H. Rockett. Population and Health: An Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.


Epidemiology l.jpg

EPIDEMIOLOGY Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.

epi – upon

demos– people

logos– study

The scientific study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of resulting knowledge to the prevention and control of health problems


Epidemiology as a liberal art l.jpg

Epidemiology as a Liberal Art Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.

An accessible low-technology science, which incorporates the “scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values”

David Fraser, New England Journal of Medicine, 316(6); 1987:309-314.


Some epidemiologic history l.jpg
Some Epidemiologic History Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.


Hippocrates l.jpg
Hippocrates Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.

On Airs, Waters, and Places (5th century BCE)


Hippocrates spearheaded a move away from looking to blame demons for disease and injury l.jpg
Hippocrates spearheaded a move away from looking Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.toblame demons for disease and injury


Fast forward l.jpg
FAST FORWARD Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.


Enter john graunt 1629 1674 l.jpg
Enter Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.John Graunt (1629-1674)

  • vocation – haberdasher (seller of men’s accessories)

  • avocation – father/founder of demography and epidemiology


Graunt counted rather than considered major greenwood among his observations he noted l.jpg
Graunt counted rather than considered ( Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.Major Greenwood)Among his observations, he noted:

  • regularity of biological phenomena in the mass

  • thatmore males are born than females and more males die than females (annually)


Slide23 l.jpg

Partial Translation Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.

  • Ague = Malaria

  • Purples & Spotted Feaver = Meningococcal Meningitis

  • King’s Evil = Tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck


Slide24 l.jpg

Population Survivorship: Two Populations Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.

th

17

century

2002

Age

United States

London, England

0

100

100

6

64

99

16

40

99

26

25

98

36

16

97

46 10

95

56

6

91

66

3

81

76

1

63


Miasmatists vs contagionists l.jpg

Miasmatists Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.Vs Contagionists

miasm– pathogenic emanation dispersed in the atmosphere

(malaria – bad ‘air’)

contagion – vehicle of person-to- person disease transmission(forerunner of germ theory)


Enter john snow 1813 1858 l.jpg
Enter Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.JohnSnow (1813-1858)


Spot map of fatal cholera cases in london 1854 l.jpg
Spot Map of Fatal Cholera Cases in London, 1854 Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.

Source: Ian R.H. Rockett. Population and Health: An Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 6.


Filippo pacini 1812 1883 l.jpg
Filippo Pacini, 1812-1883 Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.


ad