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Delivering on the Promises of e-government. Monitoring and Evaluation in Perspective Lessons from International Experience. Bruno LANVIN CITPO/GICT The World Bank. PREM Week Washington DC – 26 April 2005. Four points. e-gov, e-strat, k-strat, d-strat M&E as a strategic tool (WB approach)

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Delivering on the promises of e government

Delivering on the Promises of e-government

Monitoring and Evaluation in Perspective

Lessons from International Experience

Bruno LANVIN

CITPO/GICT

The World Bank

PREM Week

Washington DC – 26 April 2005


Four points

Four points

  • e-gov, e-strat, k-strat, d-strat

  • M&E as a strategic tool (WB approach)

  • Some lessons from experience

  • Avenues for action


Point 1

Point 1

  • e-gov, e-strat, k-strat, d-strat

  • M&E as a strategic tool (WB approach)

  • Some lessons from experience

  • Avenues for action


Delivering on the promises of e government

Shedding different lights at a complex set of issues

Global Information Infrastructure

Missing Link

(Maitland Report)

Digital Divide

Empowerment

Knowledge

Content

Applications

Regulatory aspects

Infrastructure

1985

1988

1991

1994

1997

2000

2003

2005


E strat d strat and m e strat

WSIS

(Declaration and

Plan of Action)

MDGs

(Goals and specific

targets under Goal 8)

Renewed ‘IS’ context

(Information Society approach)

New ‘E’ context

Is ICT

important

for the success

of the country’s

D-Strategy ?

Evidence from

ICT4D experience

DOT Force, etc ..

YES

E-STRATEGY

Changes

(PRSP, CAS, ..)

Monitoring

and Evaluation

M&E

NO

Traditional ‘D’ context

OUTCOME

(e-readiness, connectivity,

usage .. etc..)

Development Strategy

D-STRATEGY

(PRSP, CAS, ..)

Monitoring

and Evaluation

M&E

E-strategies and Development :

from D to E to IS

OUTCOME

(growth, competitiveness,

poverty, health, education,

etc ..)

E-Strat, D-Strat and M&E Strat


Point 2

Point 2

  • e-gov, e-strat, k-strat, d-strat

  • M&E as a strategic tool (WB approach)

  • Some lessons from experience

  • Avenues for action


Delivering on the promises of e government

  • Monitoring &

  • Evaluation

  • Toolkit for

  • E-strategies

  • Results


Meter background and objectives

METER: background and objectives

  • Consideration of 50+ e-strategies

  • Identification of goals pursued and ways to assess progress

  • Identification of linkages between ICT objectives and sectoral/strategic needs (WSIS, MDGs e.g. )

  • Proposal for an M&E methodology and specific implementation tools


Delivering on the promises of e government

From LogFrame to M&E

Indicators

Impact

Policy goals

Outcomes

Strategic priorities

Outputs

Key initiatives

Deliverables

Actions

Resources

Assumptions and risks


Delivering on the promises of e government

Toolkit Structure

Background and rationale

Module 1

Methodology

Module 2

Sectoral

Modules

(6 & 7)

Modules 4 & 5

Module 3

  • Rationale

  • Definition

  • Overview

  • M&E Tables

  • Assumptions

  • and risks

E-government

  • Infrastructure

  • and ICT sector

  • Rationale

  • Definition

  • Overview

  • M&E Tables

  • Assumptions

  • and risks

  • Framework

  • E-readiness

  • Security

  • Digital Divide

  • Rationale

  • Definition

  • Overview

  • M&E Tables

  • Assumptions

  • and risks

E-business

  • Rationale

  • Definition

  • Overview

  • M&E Tables

  • Assumptions

  • and risks

E-learning

  • Rationale

  • Definition

  • Overview

  • M&E Tables

  • Assumptions

  • and risks

E-health

Indicators and quantification

Annexes


Delivering on the promises of e government

M&E : the 3 levels of E-government

Create efficient,

responsive, transparent

government

Publish:

Provide valuable

on-line information

Interact:

Engage society to

improve government

Contract:

Offer cost-effective

online services


Delivering on the promises of e government

Prerequisite

Concern

Activity (typical indicators)

Access

Infrastructure, costs, competition/ regulation (hence includes proper regulatory and competition frameworks)

§Equipment (PCs, kiosks, community centers)

§Teledensity

§Rule of law

§Pro-competitive ICT regulation (tariff and non-tariff barriers, competition in the ICT sector)

§Cost (fixed line calls and Internet access)

§Access for disadvantaged or excluded

Basic Skills

Basic education, vocational training, ICT awareness

§Literacy (alphabetization rates)

§E-literacy ratios per age/group/sex/region

§Vocational training

Content

Value to government and citizens

§Questionnaires on value to users/citizens and government

§Content in local languages

Desire

Political leadership and will to reform

§Public statements/decisions

§Laws & regulations (perceptions of quality of legal system)

Engagement

Commitment of all components of civil society

§Broad involvement of civil society (questionnaire/survey)

§Local awareness of ICT potential for development (questionnaire/survey)

General framework to include e-government in e-strategies

e-government


Delivering on the promises of e government

Pyramid Layer

Objective

Indicator

Data source

Policy goals

Create an efficient, responsive and transparent government

Perception of overall administrative burden

Perception of government effectiveness

Office of Government and Ministry of Local Government

Strategic priorities

Bring valuable information online to the public, anytime anywhere a

§Perception of government online presence

§% pop. using govt. sites

§Usage growth rate

E-government CIO’s Office

Key initiatives

§Roll-out of online information services b

§Raise public awareness through online and offline channels

§No. of agencies with web sites

§% of agencies with web sites

§% of information services rolled-out on time

E-government CIO’s Office

Actions

§Establish an independent central e-government group and M&E unit c

Establish selection guidelines for information/content to be posted, including nature and volume

Assess technology and organizational needs/requirements

Develop online information platforms

Offer information services on line, including local language content

Develop publicity campaign to promote new e-government initiatives

Solicit feedback on usability and usefulness of online government services

§Central e-government team and M&E unit established by month A

§Guidelines for M&E established by month B

§Relevant information sources identified by month C

§System functional requirements completed by month D

§Mid-term implementation review conducted by month E

§Public awareness survey results

Project team or Central M&E unit

(a) There should be a clear linkage between the type of content that is brought on-line and larger development goals, such as economic development, anti-corruption, and attracting FDI.

(b) Criteria used for information publication should be related to cost and time savings and envisaged productivity gains.

(c) Central e-government group responsible for interoperability and inter-agency consistency of e-government services, security, consolidation of records, and M&E.

E-government

Example : “interact” level


Meter next steps

METER: next steps

  • Gather comments on the toolkit

  • Establish and launch METER website

  • Develop new modules (in partnership)

  • Launch revised version of toolkit at WSIS

  • Offer toolkit in different languages

  • Continue to contribute to continuous exchange of best practices in the area of e-strategies M&E

  • Reflect outcome in WB practices

  • Identify, disseminate and promote best practices


Point 3

Point 3

  • e-gov, e-strat, k-strat, d-strat

  • M&E as a strategic tool (WB approach)

  • Some lessons from experience

  • Avenues for action


Delivering on the promises of e government

ICT’s Impact on Development

Measurable or strategic ?

ICT access

(infrastructure,

equipment,

connectivity)

Measurable

ICT & sectoral

improvement

(e.g. education

health, etc..)

ICT &

Knowledge

Economy,

Innovation

ICT &

Job creation,

Productivity,

Competitiveness,

Poverty

reduction

Strategic


Delivering on the promises of e government

Readiness

Access

Usage

Value


Example of a possible e gov implementation chain

Example of a possible ‘e-gov’ implementation chain

Policy

D- Strategy

E- Strategy

  • Pursue a ‘knowledge-based’ competitiveness strategy

  • Improve image and efficiency of government

  • Enhance involvement of private sector in key areas

  • Redress local imbalances (social, geographic, eg)

Initiatives

  • Enhance produc-

  • tive uses of ICTs

  • in economy and

  • ICT awareness in

  • society

  • Foster SME com-

  • petitiveness at

  • home and abroad

Actions

  • Promote visible

  • E-government

  • services with

  • measurable

  • impact on SMEs

  • Foster regional

  • integration

  • through on-line

  • services to

  • rural areas

  • Establish a one-

  • stop portal for

  • SME registration

  • Allow and

  • promote on line request/issuance

  • of land titles and

  • birth certificates through commu-nity access points

  • Adapt legal syst. for on-line business registration (OLBR)

  • Create/promote portal for OLBR

  • Establish CAPs

  • Create/promote Adm. Doc. portal

GDP growth

% P.S. in GDP

Inequality index

# of hits to site

(awareness)

for SMEs, titles,..

SME rating of e-gov

Regional disp.index

ICT awareness

SME competitiv.

# of SMEs regis-

tered on-line

# of CAP created

Typical M&E indicators/ time horizon

Relevant M&E indicators


Delivering on the promises of e government

A pre-requisite for e-government: Internet Access

Internet Costs and Diffusion

(OECD – 2002)

Internet subscribers

per 100 inhabitants

The ‘Nordic’ cluster

ICL

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

KOR

DNK

SWE

The ‘mature

markets’

cluster

CH

NOR

USA

NL

CDN

UK

OECD

AUT

POR

FIN

LUX

GER

IRL

The ‘Emerging Europe’

cluster

BEL

FRA

POL

SPA

CZE

GRE

HUN

TUR

MEX

SLK

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

Average cost for 20 hours

(day + evening) in $ PPP

Source : World Bank, based on OECD data


Demand for it solutions leading through example

Demand for IT solutions/leading through example

Governments’ functions

Informatization +

Decentralization

  • E-government

  • - Customs

  • - Taxes

  • - Procurement

  • Statistics/macro-ec managmnt

  • E-democracy/local government

IT

Civil

Society +

Globalization +

Market efficiency

Governments’ roles

  • Fiscal and monetary policy

  • Trade/FDI policy

  • Diplomacy/defense

  • Education

  • Legal/regul/compet. policies

  • Justice/order etc. (“regalian”)

Demand/Supply for IT purchases

Technology supply, markets for IT

Leadership +

Facilitation

Limits to IT imports/exports

Labor supply for IT sector

Incentives/limits for IT market

E-strategy, national ambition/social project pursued through IT


New roles for governments

NEW (increasing role)

G5

  • Provide and promote vision (KISS)

  • Address ‘Digital Divides’

    • domestically

    • internationally

  • Give signals to markets

    • ICT as a national priority

    • large projects or objectives

  • Promote and defend national interests in international and global forums

  • E-government

    • services on line

    • procurement

    • trade facilitation

    • civil society participation

    • good governance

G4

Leader

G2

  • Education policy

    • curricula/life-long learning

    • ICT training facilities

    • Wiring/networking of schools

Facilitator

G3

  • Provide proper environment

  • Macro-economic environment

  • Fiscal policies (cost, innovation, investment, VC, PPP)

  • Legal/regulatory environment for ICT (competition, independent regulator, rule of law)

G1

Producer

  • Provide access (univ serv)

  • Lay out ICT infrastructure

  • Produce ICT equipment

  • Finance Public R&D

Usage

Environment

Readiness

OLD (diminishing role)

New roles for governments


E government for new government

2

R

= 0.3991

y = 0.6839x + 1.9399

e-government for ‘new’ government

7.00

FIN

SWE

GER

USA

UK

CHL

AUT

CAN

HKG

NOR

DOM

FRA

6.00

SIN

ITA

SWI

POR

ICE

NET

First circle

(top performers)

TAI

BRA

ELS

KOR

AUL

VEN

NWZ

DEN

ARG

BEL

SPA

BUL

SLK

ISR

EST

5.00

JAP

LUX

INI

PHI

HUN

JOR

Second circle

(the contestants)

IRE

EGY

SRI

MLT

THA

CZE

GRE

PER

GUA

INO

4.00

JAM

Facilitators

PAN

URU

MEX

TUR

BOL

RUS

VIE

POL

CHN

LAT

ROM

ZIM

UKR

3.00

PAR

COS

LIT

SAF

NIC

COL

SLV

Third circle

(ready or not)

BAN

NIA

TRI

ECU

HON

2.00

MAU

8.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

Note : the ‘Government’ variable of the GITR index has been used as proxy for Government leadership (x), whereas ‘Competition in telecoms’ has been used as an indicator of the effectiveness of Governments as facilitators (y)

Leaders


Point 4

Point 4

  • e-gov, e-strat, k-strat, d-strat

  • M&E as a strategic tool (WB approach)

  • Some lessons from experience

  • Avenues for action


The a b c d e of the digital divide

The A,B,C,D,E of the Digital Divide

Access

Basic skills

Content

Desire

Engagement

- Infrastructure, costs,

competition/regulation

  • Basic education, vocational

  • training, entrepreneurship

- Local value, languages

- Local will to reform

  • Commitment of all compo-

  • nents of civil society


Direct effets

Direct effets

  • Increased public sector efficiency

    • Savings for governemnt (lower administrative costs)

    • Better management of public resources

  • Better access to public services by firms and citizens

    • Savings for users (time and money)

    • Extended coverage (geographic, social, timewise: 24/7)

    • New services offered (e.g. itineraries, doc search & comparison,.)

  • Improved economic governance

    • Data on traffic (flows of goods & services, payments, tracking, ..) is more precise, quasi-instantaneous and cross-referentiable

    • Public service staff can find renewed motivation

    • Cooperation improved between public sector, private sector and citizens


Indirect effects

Indirect effects

  • Transparency/governance

    • e-procurement (on-line tendering)

    • Selectivity systems in customs and other inspection-based services

    • Involvement of citizens in policy debates and decisions

  • Business competitiveness

    • Faster services (registrations, licenses, authorizations,..)

    • Timely access to strategic data (prices, markets, laws/regulations,,..)

  • IT knowledge and litteracy

    • learning-by-doing, incremental improvements to software, etc…

    • Breaking psychological barriers (public access points, ..)

  • Building information societies

    • Turning local knowledge into value and competitiveness (culture, modus operandi,..)

    • Attracting external partners (trade, investment, ..)

    • Contributing to global development efforts (MDGs)


E government vs better government

Consider and promote e-government as a government-centered effort

Consider and promote e-government as a technology-driven effort

Replace every paper-based process by an electronic process

Offer ‘ministry-specific’ e-solutions

Launch, measure, punish/reward

Focus the e-government process on users (citizens & businesses)

Focus e-government strategy on people (both on the government and on the users side); favor technology-neutral choices

Use e-government as a tool to foster changes in attitudes and thinking, and as an instrument for reforms

Rally government-wide energies and competence around common procedures and standards (back office), and an ‘all-of-government’ approach (front office)

Adopt an early common approach to monitoring and evaluation (accountability, ownership, results)

e-government vs better government

Ways to fail

Ways to go


Thanks for your attention

Thanks for your attention

[email protected]


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