Carboxylic acids nitriles
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Carboxylic Acids Nitriles. Natural Products Nomenclature Acidity Preparation Reactions. Analgesics. Fats and Fatty Acids. Prostaglandins. Penicillins from mold. From Ergot Fungus. Common Nomenclature. I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature. Dicarboxylic Acids. A Diacid.

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Carboxylic Acids Nitriles

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Carboxylic acids nitriles

Carboxylic AcidsNitriles

Natural Products

Nomenclature

Acidity

Preparation

Reactions


Analgesics

Analgesics


Fats and fatty acids

Fats and Fatty Acids


Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins


Penicillins from mold

Penicillins from mold


From ergot fungus

From Ergot Fungus


Common nomenclature

Common Nomenclature


I u p a c nomenclature

I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature


Dicarboxylic acids

Dicarboxylic Acids


A diacid

A Diacid


Unusually high melting and boiling points

Unusually High Melting and Boiling Points


Boiling points

Boiling Points


Acidity is due to delocalization of the charge in the conjugate base

Acidity is due to Delocalization of the Charge in the Conjugate Base


Alcohol vs acid

Alcohol vs. Acid


E withdrawing groups enhance acidity

e- Withdrawing Groups Enhance Acidity


Benzoic acids

Benzoic acids


Deprotonation

Deprotonation


Ester formation

Ester Formation


Carboxylic acid preparations

Carboxylic Acid Preparations

  • Oxidation of 1o alcohols and aldehydes with Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4

  • KMnO4 oxidation of alkylbenzenes

  • Grignard reaction with CO2 (Carboxylation)

  • Hydrolysis of a carboxylic derivative:

    e.g. acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester, amide, nitrile


Grignard reaction with co 2

Grignard Reaction with CO2


Mechanism

Mechanism


Hydrolysis of a nitrile

Hydrolysis of a Nitrile


Reduction of carboxylic acids

Reduction of Carboxylic Acids


Naming nitriles

Naming Nitriles


Dehydration of an amide use strong dehydrating agent

Dehydration of an Amideuse strong dehydrating agent


Reduction of nitriles

Reduction of Nitriles


Grignard addition to a nitrile

Grignard Addition to a Nitrile


Partial mechanism

Partial Mechanism


The rest of the mechanism

The Rest of the Mechanism


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