Carboxylic acids nitriles
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Carboxylic Acids Nitriles. Natural Products Nomenclature Acidity Preparation Reactions. Analgesics. Fats and Fatty Acids. Prostaglandins. Penicillins from mold. From Ergot Fungus. Common Nomenclature. I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature. Dicarboxylic Acids. A Diacid.

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Carboxylic acids nitriles

Carboxylic AcidsNitriles

Natural Products

Nomenclature

Acidity

Preparation

Reactions














Alcohol vs acid
Alcohol vs. Acid Conjugate Base


E withdrawing groups enhance acidity
e Conjugate Base- Withdrawing Groups Enhance Acidity


Benzoic acids
Benzoic acids Conjugate Base


Deprotonation
Deprotonation Conjugate Base


Ester formation
Ester Formation Conjugate Base


Carboxylic acid preparations
Carboxylic Acid Preparations Conjugate Base

  • Oxidation of 1o alcohols and aldehydes with Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4

  • KMnO4 oxidation of alkylbenzenes

  • Grignard reaction with CO2 (Carboxylation)

  • Hydrolysis of a carboxylic derivative:

    e.g. acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester, amide, nitrile


Grignard reaction with co 2
Grignard Reaction with CO Conjugate Base2


Mechanism
Mechanism Conjugate Base


Hydrolysis of a nitrile
Hydrolysis of a Nitrile Conjugate Base



Naming nitriles
Naming Nitriles Conjugate Base


Dehydration of an amide use strong dehydrating agent
Dehydration of an Amide Conjugate Baseuse strong dehydrating agent


Reduction of nitriles
Reduction of Nitriles Conjugate Base



Partial mechanism
Partial Mechanism Conjugate Base



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