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Carboxylic Acids Nitriles. Natural Products Nomenclature Acidity Preparation Reactions. Analgesics. Fats and Fatty Acids. Prostaglandins. Penicillins from mold. From Ergot Fungus. Common Nomenclature. I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature. Dicarboxylic Acids. A Diacid.

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Carboxylic Acids Nitriles

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Carboxylic acids nitriles

Carboxylic AcidsNitriles

Natural Products







Fats and fatty acids

Fats and Fatty Acids



Penicillins from mold

Penicillins from mold

From ergot fungus

From Ergot Fungus

Common nomenclature

Common Nomenclature

I u p a c nomenclature

I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature

Dicarboxylic acids

Dicarboxylic Acids

A diacid

A Diacid

Unusually high melting and boiling points

Unusually High Melting and Boiling Points

Boiling points

Boiling Points

Acidity is due to delocalization of the charge in the conjugate base

Acidity is due to Delocalization of the Charge in the Conjugate Base

Alcohol vs acid

Alcohol vs. Acid

E withdrawing groups enhance acidity

e- Withdrawing Groups Enhance Acidity

Benzoic acids

Benzoic acids



Ester formation

Ester Formation

Carboxylic acid preparations

Carboxylic Acid Preparations

  • Oxidation of 1o alcohols and aldehydes with Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4

  • KMnO4 oxidation of alkylbenzenes

  • Grignard reaction with CO2 (Carboxylation)

  • Hydrolysis of a carboxylic derivative:

    e.g. acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester, amide, nitrile

Grignard reaction with co 2

Grignard Reaction with CO2



Hydrolysis of a nitrile

Hydrolysis of a Nitrile

Reduction of carboxylic acids

Reduction of Carboxylic Acids

Naming nitriles

Naming Nitriles

Dehydration of an amide use strong dehydrating agent

Dehydration of an Amideuse strong dehydrating agent

Reduction of nitriles

Reduction of Nitriles

Grignard addition to a nitrile

Grignard Addition to a Nitrile

Partial mechanism

Partial Mechanism

The rest of the mechanism

The Rest of the Mechanism

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