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Active. Active, a platform for building intelligent software Dr. Charles Baur (EPFL) Adam Cheyer (SRI International) Didier Guzzoni (EPFL). Presentation Plan. Introduction Problem space Active proposition Active Framework Active Ontologies Implementation Methodologies Applications

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active

Active

Active, a platform for building intelligent software

Dr. Charles Baur (EPFL)

Adam Cheyer (SRI International)

Didier Guzzoni (EPFL)

Active

presentation plan
Presentation Plan
  • Introduction
    • Problem space
    • Active proposition
  • Active Framework
    • Active Ontologies
    • Implementation
    • Methodologies
  • Applications
  • Conclusion

Active

Introduction

motivation
Motivation
  • Our information environment is rich and complex
    • Ubiquitous access to a wealth of data and services
    • Software and hardware industry constant innovations
    • UIs have not changed: Simple click-and-do approach not enough
  • Need for computer assistants
    • Interact naturally with humans
    • Can be delegated complex tasks
    • Observe, understand, anticipate and act

Active

Introduction

intelligent systems
Intelligent Systems

Understand

Anticipate

Resolve

Interpret

Plan action

Observe

Act

Effectuate

Communicate

Listen

Vision

Sense

Intelligent Systems : Naturally collaborates with human users to deliver services and contents through adaptable, efficient, multimodal user interfaces.

Active

Introduction

difficult task
Difficult Task
  • Requires numerous AI techniques
    • Language processing
    • Plan execution
    • Dynamic service brokering (MAS)
  • Implementation is difficult
    • HCI components (speech recognition, vision, robotics)
    • Large teams of specialists
    • Different programming languages and platforms
    • Testing, debugging and maintenance is difficult
    • Performance is likely to be affected

Lack of an integrated tool and methodology to easily and effectively build intelligent systems

Active

Introduction

goal of active
Goal of Active
  • Provide programmers with an integrated framework and a methodology to build complex AI-based systems
  • Capable of encapsulating AI techniques
    • Language processing, plan execution and agent type techniques
  • Programmer friendly
    • Small teams
    • Based on popular programming languages (Java/Javascript)
    • Offers an IDE (code, test, debug and deploy)
  • Open and standard compliant
    • SOA-based (SOAP, REST, RMI)
    • Deployment (Java, J2EE)

Active

Active Framework

basic concept active ontologies
Basic Concept : Active Ontologies
  • Ontology : A data structure
    • Formal representation for domain knowledge
    • Classes, attributes, relations

P

movie

P

genre

P

actor

P

rating

  • Active Ontology : A processing environment
    • Processing elements arranged according to ontology notions
    • Communication channels

Active

Active Framework

active ontology processing

rule set

rule

rule

rule

condition

condition

condition

action

action

action

Active Ontology : Processing
  • Production Rule System
    • Rules Sets
      • Rules (Conditions, actions)
    • Data store (facts)
      • Current state of the system
    • Evaluation Engine
      • Evaluation passes
  • Active Innovations
    • Organizing rules around Ontologies helps design and debug
    • Developer friendly rule language. Enhanced Java/Javascript with unification

P

movie

Active

Active Framework

active application design
Active Application Design
  • One or more Active Ontologies
    • Hosted on Active runtime
    • Typically :
      • Language processing
      • Plan execution
      • Dynamic service brokering
  • Service oriented (SOA)
    • Loosely coupled
    • Sensors (user interfaces, speech recognition, vision)
    • Actuators (robots, user interfaces)
    • Reusable
    • Dynamically swapped

Active runtime

services

Active

Active Framework

implementation

Active Ontology

Active Ontology

Active Ontology

Active Ontology

Implementation

Active Editor

  • Active Server
    • Hosts Active Ontologies
    • Maintains a fact store
    • Runs evaluation engine
    • Extensions
  • Active Editor
    • IDE
    • Code, deploy, test
    • Pluggins
  • Active Console
    • Manages Active Server

Active Server

deploy

Facts store

debug

Evaluation

Engine

monitor

Active Console

Active

Implementation

active server
Active Server
  • Runs and hosts Active Ontologies
    • Evaluation Engine
    • Fact Store
  • Implementation
    • Java application/J2EE webapp
    • SOAP / RMI interface
    • Rule language is Java/JavaScript enhanced by unification
  • Extensions
    • Encapsulate pre-compiled complex operations

Active Server

Active Ontologies

Evaluation

Engine

Fact store

Extensions

SOAP/RMI interface

services

Active

Implementation

active editor
Active Editor
  • IDE
    • Graphical editing of ontologies
    • Specialized concept and rule editors
    • Active ontology definition files saved locally (XML)
  • Active Server Connection
    • Deploy/undeploy edited ontologies
    • Integrated test/debug
  • Plugins
    • Automatically creates concepts and rules based on interactive wizards

Active

Implementation

active console
Active Console
  • Management tool
    • Monitor and configure deployed Active Ontologies
    • SOAP/RMI interface
  • Query (read) panel
    • Construct complex queries to Active Server
    • Tabular result sets
  • Store (write) panel
    • Stimulates Active Ontologies by sending events to the server

Active

Implementation

active methodologies
Active Methodologies
  • Language Processing
    • Chart Parsing
    • Event based
  • Agent techniques
    • Delegated computing
    • Dynamic service selection
  • Plan execution
    • Process Execution Engine
    • Reactive Planning

Active

Methodologies

language processing grammar based
Language Processing : Grammar-Based
  • Grammar-based
    • Grammar based
    • Chart parsing
  • Advantages
    • Formal parsing (Mathematical expressions)
    • Deterministic
  • Disadvantages
    • Not flexible
    • Not robust to missing words
    • Not well suited for non-reliable input modalities (Speech recognition)

Active

Methodologies

language processing domain based
Language Processing : Domain-Based

“find action movies in San Francisco”

  • Implementation
    • Bottom Up
    • Leaves : Word set, regex
    • Nodes : Gather, Select
  • Context
    • Kept among utterances
    • Errors, Suggestions
  • Advantages
    • Robust to syntax
    • Ports well to different languages
  • Wizards
    • Easy modifications

“nearby Chinese restaurants”

Active

Methodologies

activity dialog modeling
Activity/Dialog Modeling
  • Modeling
    • Dialogs, Activities, Behaviors
  • Full-featured workflow management
    • State / Transitions
    • Flow instances, Instance space
  • Basic flow constructs
    • Start, End
    • Wait, Switch (branching)
    • Parallel, sequences
  • Active Implementation
    • Set of plugins (Editor Wizards)
    • Extension (Java/JavaScript) to access flow variables

Active

Methodologies

dynamic service brokering
Dynamic Service Brokering
  • Delegated Computing
    • What instead of how or who
  • Service Registry
    • Service categories cross-ontology references
    • Service instances (providers)
  • Broker
    • Parallel, Sequential, Broadcast
    • Third-party meta-agents
  • Active Implementation
    • Specialized Active Ontology
    • Server Extension, IDE Wizards

Active

Methodologies

prototypes demonstration
Prototypes / Demonstration
  • Information Retrieval Assistant
  • Meeting Organizer Assistant
  • Operating Room Assistant

Active

Prototypes

slide20

Active Server

Language Processing

Plan Execution

Delegation

Extensions

Email

SOAP

City Information

gmail SMTP/POP server

Yahoo! Local

Google Movies

Opentable

Information Retrieval Assistant

Active

Prototypes

slide21

gmail calendar

gmail SMTP/POP server

Meeting Organizer Assistant

Active Server

Language Processing

Plan Execution

Delegation

Extensions

IM

SOAP

Email

Active

Prototypes

slide22

Speech Recognizer

Patient vital signs probes

Context History

Mouse 3D

Hand/Head

Tracker

Gesture Recognizer

User Interface

Text to Speech

Operating Room Assistant

Language Processing

Plan Execution

Powered Endoscope

Actions through Delegation

Active

Prototypes

active advantages
Active Advantages
  • One platform to learn for programmers
    • Can build all three tiers of applications in Active
    • One language and tool to learn
    • Easier to debug, test and deploy
  • AI Encapsulation-Lowering the bar
    • Methodologies encapsulated as Active Wizards and Extensions
      • NLP, process execution, service brokering
    • Componentized reusable sensors and actuators
      • TTS, Speech, Gesture recognizers, vision systems
  • Open and Standard-based
    • SOA design
    • Ease of integration through SOAP and REST
    • Reuse of existing components in multiple applications

Conclusion

Active

ongoing work
Ongoing Work
  • Research Topics
    • Combine activity recognition with process execution
    • Implement and evaluate BDI-like behaviors with Active (goal and intention stack)
  • Active implementation and features
    • Scalability
    • Performance optimizations
    • Lightweight embedded Active Server
  • User Evaluations
    • Put some of our systems on-line
    • Measure feedback from surgeons (Intelligent Operating Room)

Conclusion

Active

thank you
Thank You !
  • Questions ?
  • Suggestions ?
  • Remarks ?

Conclusion

Active

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