S0001
Advertisement
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 30

Session 1 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Comprehends the complex chemistry of living organisms. ... Stillman, J. M. The story of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry; Dover: New York 1960, p. 160. ...

Download Presentation

Session 1

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Session 1

S0001

Preparation

for

College Chemistry

Let's Talk Chemistry

Luis Avila

[email protected]

Room: Chandler 455

Phone #: (212)854-8587


What does a chemist do

“Take white lead, one part, and any glass you choose, two parts, fuse together in a crucible and then pour the mixture. To this crystal add the urine of an ass and after forty days you will find emeralds”

Stillman, J. M. The story of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry;

Dover: New York 1960, p. 160.

What is Chemistry?

What Does a Chemist Do?

  • Studies the atomic composition and structural features of substances.

  • Investigates the variedinteractions among substances

  • Utilizes natural substances and creates artificial ones.

  • Comprehends the complex chemistry of living organisms.

  • Provides a molecular interpretation of health and disease.


Session 1

How Does She/He do it?

  • Main Divisions of Chemistry

  • Organic Chemistry

  • Inorganic Chemistry

  • Physical Chemistry

  • Analytical Chemistry

  • Industrial Chemistry

  • (Chemical Engineering

  • and Applied Chemistry)

  • Biochemistry

Materials Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry

Forensic Chemistry


Session 1

What is Organic Chemistry?

Largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistry

Synthetic Organic Chemistry

  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry

  • Polymer Chemistry

  • Dye and Textile Chemistry

  • Pulp and Paper Chemistry

  • Agricultural Chemistry

  • Formulation Chemistry (paint, food, petroleum products, adhesives, etc.)

Physical Organic Chemistry

  • Correlates the physical and chemical properties of compounds with their structural features.


Session 1

We are interested in the multistep synthesis of natural products, as well as the development of new

methodology, particularly to address problems of regio- or stereocontrol. At present (1999), we are working on problems suggested by structures such as those of germine, taxol, cardenolides and codeine

Synthetic Organic Chemist:

Professor Gilbert Stork


Session 1

2-acetylnerifolin (class Cardenolide)

Natural Product with Antitumor Activity

Taxol

Natural Product with Antitumor Activity


Session 1

Among our areas of current interest in the anticancer field are epothilone and eleutherobin. While structurally diverse, these two compounds seem to function by a taxol-like mechanism in their ability to inhibit microtubule disassembly.

Several projects are addressed to goal systems with immunochemical implications. Here we are

particularly concerned with the construction of a carbohydrate-based tumor antigen vaccine.

Synthetic Organic Chemist /

Bioorganic Chemist:

Professor Samuel Danishefsky


Session 1

We deal with structural aspects of bioactive compounds and elucidation of their mode of action.

In most cases this involves investigating the interaction of small molecules with their biopolymeric receptors. The recent dramatic advancement in isolation, purification and

microspectroscopic methods has made it possible for chemists to become involved in such studies on a molecular structural basis

Natural Products Chemist :

Professor Koji Nakanishi


Session 1

We view the photon as a reagent for initiating photoreactions and as a product of the deactivation of electronically excited molecules.

Our group is developing a novel field termed "supramolecular" photochemistry, or photochemistry beyond the conventional intellectual and scientific constraints implied by the term "molecule". In supramolecular processes non-covalent bonds between molecules play a role analogous to that of covalent bonds between atoms.

Physical Organic Chemist / Photochemist

Material Chemist:

Professor Nicholas Turro


Session 1

What is Inorganic Chemistry?

Deals with the properties of elements ranging from metals to non metals

  • Organometallic Chemistry

  • Bioinorganic Chemistry

  • Ceramics and Glass

  • Semiconductors


Session 1

We have a continuing interest in exploring unusual artifacts resulting from X-ray diffraction experiments (e.g. "bond stretch" isomerism)

One of our interests is concerned with compounds with metal-ligand multiple bonds, which are species of considerable current interest in terms of both their bonding and reactivity.

Organometallic Chemist / X-ray Spectroscopist:

Professor Gerard Parkin


Session 1

In our major effort we are trying to prepare artificial enzymes that can imitate the function of natural enzymes.

A related study involves the synthesis of mimics of antibodies or of biological receptor sites, constructing molecules that will bind to polypeptides with sequence selectivity in water, using mainly hydrophobic interactions. These could

be very useful in modulating the activity of peptide hormones, for instance.

Bio-organic Chemist :

Professor Ronald Breslow


Measures correlates and explains the quantitative aspects of chemical processes

What is Physical Chemistry?

Measures, correlates, and explains the quantitative aspects of chemical processes

  • Theoretical Chemistry

  • Devoted to Quantum and Statistical Mechanics.

    • Theoretical chemists use computers to help them solve complicated

    • mathematical equations that simulate specific chemical processes.

  • Chemical Thermodynamics

  • Deals with the relationship between heat, work, temperature,

    • and energy of Chemical systems.

  • Chemical Kinetics

  • Seeks to measure and understand the rates of chemical

  • reactions.


Session 1

Physical Chemistry

  • Electrochemistry

  • Investigates the interrelationship between electric current and chemical change.

  • Photochemistry, Spectroscopy

  • Uses radiation energy to probe and induce change within matter.

  • Surface Chemistry

  • Examines the properties of chemical surfaces, using instruments that can provide a chemical profile of such surfaces.


Session 1

My research is concerned with structural and dynamic processes in condensed phase systems and biomacromolecular systems.

Because the systems studied are often complex many-body systems, it is necessary to utilize the powerful analytical methods of statistical mechanics as well as state-of-the-art methods of computer simulation involving molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques.

Theoretical Chemist: Professor Bruce Berne


Session 1

My research is materials, surfaces and nanocrystals, especially in relation to optical and electronic properties. This work can include theoretical modeling, experimental chemical physics, and synthetic chemistry. We try to understand the evolution of solid state properties from molecular properties, and to create new materials with nanoscale structure by both kinetic and thermodynamic self-assembly methods.

Materials Chemist:

Professor Louis Brus


Session 1

Our research program involves the design, synthesis, and detailed physical investigation of novel molecular and nanoparticle materials which display unique self-organized hierarchical structures and specific optical, electronic, and/or magnetic properties. Emphasis is placed on materials with potential applications in light-emitting devices, optical memory devices, molecular level and single particle level switching devices, and chemosensory devices. Our research is necessarily interdisciplinary where students and post-doctoral researchers are exposed to modern aspects of inorganic, physical, and materials chemistry.

Materials Chemist /

Near Field Microscopist

Professor David Adams


Session 1

Experimental Physical Chemist / Surface Chemist

Professor George Flynn

We investigate molecular

collisions that lead either to chemical reaction or to the exchange of energy between

molecules. In particular, we have developed the infrared diode laser absorption probe

technique to investigate collisions between molecules.

We also study the structure of molecules adsorbed on surfaces by using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).


What is analytical chemistry

What is Analytical Chemistry?

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS deals with the detection of elements or compounds (analytes) in different materials.

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS refers to the measurement of the actual amounts of the analyte present in the material investigated.

  • Chemical and Biochemical Methods

  • Gravimetry

  • Titrimetric Analysis

  • Enzymic Analysis

  • Inmunochemical Analysis


Analytical chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

  • Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopic Methods

  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

  • Mass Spectrometry (MS)

  • Vibrational Spectroscopy (IR, RAMAN)

  • X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XPS)

  • Electronic Spectroscopy (UV, VIS, Luminiscence)

  • Atomic Spectroscopy (AA, ICP)

  • Rotational Spectroscopy (Microwave, FIR)


Analytical chemistry1

Analytical Chemistry

  • Gas Chromatography (GC)

  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

  • Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)

  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

  • Ion Chromatography

  • Chromatographic Methods (Partition equilibrium)


Analytical chemistry2

Analytical Chemistry

  • Thermal Methods

  • Thermogravimetry (TG)

  • Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

  • Thermomechanic Analysis (TMA)

  • Electrochemical Methods

  • Electrogravimetry

  • Electrophoresis

  • Conductimetry,Potentiometry

  • Polarography

  • Voltammetry


Session 1

We study enzyme mechanisms using NMR. A variety of experiments allow us to probe structural details,dynamics or chemical details such as protonation states.

In photosynthetic reaction centers, light energy is converted to chemical potential energy through long-range electron transfer events. A wealth of crystallographic, mutagenic, and spectroscopic work on these centers still leaves important mechanistic questions unanswered.

Biophysical Chemist / NMR Spectroscopist:

Professor Ann McDermott


Session 1

Our research interests center on the development of selection

strategies for identifying enzymes from large pools of proteins.

This research is interdisciplinary, bringing together the techniques

of small-molecule synthesis, molecular and cellular biology,

computer modeling, and mechanistic enzymology and structural biology. The need for efficient catalysts is fundamental. Biological catalysts drive cellular processes, and the chemical industry relies on catalysts for the synthesis of compounds ranging from pharmaceuticals to materials.

Molecular Biologist / Organic Chemist:

Professor Virginia Cornish


The tools of the trade

H

1

He

2

Li

3

4

Be

5

B

C

6

7

N

8

O

9

F

Ne

10

11

Na

Mg

12

Al

13

14

Si

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

18

Ar

K

19

Ca

20

21

Sc

22

Ti

V

23

24

Cr

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

28

Ni

29

Cu

Zn

30

31

Ga

Ge

32

33

As

Se

34

35

Br

36

Kr

Rb

37

Sr

38

39

Y

40

Zr

41

Nb

42

Mo

43

Tc

44

Ru

45

Rh

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

49

In

50

Sn

51

Sb

52

Te

I

53

Xe

54

55

Cs

Ba

56

La

57

72

Hf

Ta

73

74

W

Re

75

76

Os

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

8l

Pb

82

83

Bi

84

Po

At

85

86

Rn

87

Fr

88

Ra

89

Ac

104

Rf

105

Ha

Sg

106

107

Bh

108

Hs

Mt

109

Ce

58

Pr

59

60

Nd

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

68

Lu

69

71

Dy

70

Ho

Er

67

Tmi

Yb

66

90

Th

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

95

Am

Cm

96

97

Bk

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Cf

99

102

101

100

103

98

The Tools of the Trade

Periodic Table of the Elements


Interesting applications

Interesting Applications

The KSC-ALS Breadboard Project

  • Humans take in oxygen, food and water, and expel carbon dioxide and organic waste. Plants utilize carbon dioxide, produce food, release oxygen, and purify water. Inedible plant material and human waste are degraded by microorganisms to recycle nutrients for plants in a process termed resource recovery.


Session 1

When humans establish permanent bases on the Lunar surface or travel to Space for exploration, they need to develop systems to:

  • produce food

  • purify their water supply and

  • create oxygen from the carbon dioxide they expel.

Physico-chemical processes can perform the two latter tasks, but only biological processes can perform all three.


Session 1

  • A life support system that would perform these regenerative functions, whether strictly by biological means or by a combination of biological and physical-chemical methods, has been called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  • Biological systems utilize plants and microorganisms

    to perform these life support tasks in a process termed

    bioregeneration.


Session 1

A CELSS is a tightly controlled system, using crops to perform life support functions, under the restrictions of minimizing volume, mass, energy, and labor.


Session 1

A career alternative for chemists, a multidisciplinary arena to prove the role of Chemistry as a "central science".


  • Login