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Native Americans. By: Victoria. The Blackfeet Indians are original residents of the northern Plains, particularly Montana, Idaho, and Alberta, Canada. Most Blackfoot people still live in this region today.

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Native Americans

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Native Americans

By: Victoria


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  • The Blackfeet Indians are original residents of the northern Plains, particularly Montana, Idaho, and Alberta, Canada. Most Blackfoot people still live in this region today.

  • After arrival of the Europeans along the Eastern seashore into he 1600's it is believed that the Blackfeet were probably one of the first tribes to begin moving west. 

  • Blackfoot migrated to their present territory from the northern Great Lakes Region

  • The plains Indians of north America like the Blackfoot lived for thousands of years without horses

  • Territory stretched from northern Saskatchewan's to the southernmost waters of Missouri.

  • The Blackfoot is English translation for the word siksika

  • from northern Saskatchewan's to the southernmost waters of Missouri.


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THE BLACKFOOT HOUSES

  • They lived in buffalo hide houses called tipis (or teepees) carefully

  • designed to set up and brake down quickly

  • they could be packed up and ready to go within an hour

  • Today most Blackfoot Indians live in modern houses and apartment buildings


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The Blackfoot clothing

The Blackfoot clothing

  • woman wore long deerskin dresses

  • men wore buckskins tunics and breechcloths with leggings

  • Blackfoot dresses and war shirts were fringed and often decorated with porcupine quills, beads, and elk teeth.

  • the Blackfoot Indians used hides of animals such as buffalo, deer, and elk to make their clothing.

  • Daily clothing wasn't decorated though.

  • woman wore long deerskins dresses

  • men wore buckskins tunics and breechcloths with leggings

  • The Blackfoot Indians used hides of animals such as buffalo, deer, and elk to make their clothing


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THE BLACKFOOTS FOOD

  • the Blackfoot staple food was buffalo

  • they moved their villages often moved

  • in ad addition to buffalo meat ,the Blackfoot Indians also ate small game like ground squires, nuts and berries and steam comas roots as part of their diet

  • They also eat bannock which is a kind of bread, and wild rice pudding

  • they also ate pemmican which is made by pounding buffalo meat mixed with fat and berries


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The Blackfoot weapons

  • the Blackfoot Indians used spears, tomahawks, bow and arrows ,the war club, and the dagger

  • The tomahawk and the dagger were used for hunting and fights.

  • The bow and arrow were used mostly for hunting buffalo.

  • The Blackfoot tribe had a main weapon, a bow and arrow which they made themselves. They also had arrow heads made out of stone.


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THE IROQUOIS HISTORY

  • Based in what is now upstate New York at the time of the arrival of the Europeans, they now occupy territory in Ontario, Quebec and New York

  • The spiritual union of the nations began before European contact, replete with a Constitution recorded with special beads called wampum that served the same purpose as money in other cultures.

  • The Seneca were the largest of the 5 tribes which comprised the Iroquois League or the Five Nations

  • At the time of the formation of the Iroquois League, the five tribes occupied territory from the East to the West, the Seneca being the "keepers of the western door".


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THE IRIQUOIS HOUSES

THE IRIQUOIS LONGHOUSES

  • longhouses are long wood-frame buildings covered with sheets of elm bark. they were as long as 100ft long and fit 60 people in them

  • In the early years the longhouses were built near streams. Later they were built on hilltops for protection from invading tribes.

  • The longhouse was built by driving two rows of poles into the ground in zigzag lines ten or twelve feet apart. The poles were tied together a the top. Other poles were fastened across them. Next slabs of bark were tied to cover the poles. An open space was left at the top for smoke to escape. A door was built at the end of the long house. The door was covered with a curtain made from animal skins.


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THE IROQUOIS CLOTHING

  • Kilts were traditionally made from leather and the edges fringed and decorated with porcupine quill-work. Kilts are secured around the waist by a sash. Today kilts can be made from cloth, usually wool in red or black is preferred.

  • Iroquois men wore breechcloth with long leggings.

  • Iroquois women wore wraparound skirts with shorter leggings.

  • Men did not originally wear shirts in Iroquois culture, but women often wore a tunic called an overdress.

  • Iroquois men wore a gustoes, which was a feathered cap with different insignia for each tribe (the headdress worn by the man in this picture has three eagle feathers, showing that he is Mohawk.)

  • Iroquois women sometimes wore special beaded tiaras. Iroquois warriors often shaved their heads except for a scalp lock or a crest down the center of their head (the style known as a roach, or a "Mohawk.")


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THE IROQUOIS FOOD

  • The Iroquois men hunted deer and other game. Boys  were allowed to join the men in hunting after they had killed a deer by themselves.

  • Farming determined the way the Indians lived. The Iroquois moved to new locations when their large fields no longer produced a good crop of beans, corn, and squash. They called beans, squash, and corn "The Three Sisters".

  • The women  tended the crops. One favorite food of the Iroquois was corn cakes. It was made by patting corn into round cakes then baking it.

  • The Mohawk Indians were farming people. Mohawk women planted crops of corn, beans, and squash and harvested wild berries and herbs  

  •  Mohawk men hunted for deer and elk and fished in the rivers. Traditional Mohawk foods included cornbread, soups, and stews, which they cooked on stone hearths.   


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THE IRIQUOIS WEAPONS & TOOLS

  • Tomahawk is a light axe formerly used as a tool or weapon by certain Native Americans.

  • the Iroquois used bows and arrows

  • Iroquois fishermen generally used spears and fishing poles

  • In war, Iroquois men used their bows and arrows or fought with clubs, spears and shields.

  • Other important tools used by the Iroquois Indians included stone adzes (hand axes for woodworking), flint knives for skinning animals, and wooden hoes for farming.

  • The Iroquois were skilled woodworkers, steaming wood so they could bend it into curved tools.


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HOPI HISTORY

  • The Hopi Indians, which means good, peaceful, or wise, come from a group of Southwestern people called Pueblo.

  • After occupying almost all of northern Arizona, from California to parts of Southern Nevada, the Hopis are now living on the Hopi reservation in Black Mesa, Arizona near the Painted Desert.

  • The Hopis are thought to have migrated north out of Mexico around 500 B.C.


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HOPI HOUSES

  • Hopis live in pueblos that are made of stone and mud and stand several stories high.

  • The kivas are an un underground chamber in the pueblo home that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. they used kivas for hundreds of years

  • You had to climb down a ladder to get to the south end where a bench was placed for spectators.  At the north end was a small hole in the floor as a reminder of sipasu

  • The walls of some Hopi houses are constructed of undressed stone fragments bound with mud plaster

  • The flat roof consists of beams resting on the tops of the walls, pole battens, rod and grass thatching, a layer of gumbo plaster, and a covering of dry earth. Most of the houses are more than single story. and some are four stories. The upper apartments are reached by outside ladders.


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HOPI CLOTHING

  • The clothing they wore depended on what they did.  They lived in a warm climate so they wore little clothing.  They would dress in flowers and paint with feather headdresses.  They also used clothing to signify their fighting skills

  • Originally, Hopi men didn't wear much clothing-- only breechcloths or short kilts (men's skirts).

  • Hopi women wore knee-length cotton dresses called mantas. A manta fastened at a woman's right shoulder, leaving her left shoulder bare

  • Missionaries didn't think this dress style was modest enough, so in the 1900's many Hopi women started wearing blouses underneath their mantas

  • For dances and special occasions, women painted their moccasins white and wrapped white strips of deerskin around their shins as leggings


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HOPI FOOD

  • the Hopi grew food similar to the Navajo

  • they raised corn or maize as the basic food

  • they grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the most common were blue and white

  • they also grew beans , squash, melons, pumpkins and fruit

  • they were the very first southwest Indians to hunt mammoths until they became extinct then they hunted buffalo also known as bison

  • They planted crops of corn, beans, and squash, as well as cotton and tobacco, and raised turkeys for their meat.

  • Hopi men also hunted deer, antelope, and small game, while women gathered nuts, fruits, and herbs.

  • Favorite Hopi recipes included hominy, baked beans, soups, and different types of cornbread.


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HOPI WEAPONS

  • Hopi hunters used bows and arrows

  • The Hopis did not go to war often, though Hopi warriors did sometimes have to defend their territory against the Spanish and Navajos

  • When this happened, they normally fired their bows or fought with spears.

  • Hopi tools included wooden farm implements, spindles and looms for weaving cotton (and later wool), and pump drills for boring holes in turquoise and other beads.


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MAKAH HISTORY

  • the Makah lived in the Olympic peninsula Washington state

  • The Makah Indians are original people of the Pacific Northwest Coast.

  • the climate there was probably cold


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MAKAH PLANK HOUSES

  • Plank houses are good houses for people in cold climates with lots of tall trees

  • However, only people who don't need to migrate spend the time and effort to build these large permanent homes

  • Most Native Americans who live in the far northern forests must migrate regularly to follow caribou herds and other game, so plank houses aren't a good choice for them. Only coastal tribes, who make their living by fishing, made houses like these

  • Usually these houses were large (up to 60 feet long) and each one housed several families from the same clan


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MAKAH CLOTHING

  • Makah men didn't usually wear clothing at all, though some men wore breech-clouts

  • Women wore short skirts made of cedar bark or grass.

  • In the rain, the Makah's wore Tule rush capes, and in colder weather, they wore tunics, fur cloaks and moccasins on their feet.

  • Later, after European influence, Makah people began wearing blanket robes


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MAKAH FOOD

  • The Makah Indians were primarily marine hunters

  • Makah men hunted seals, sea lions, and even whales from their canoes.

  • They also caught fish and hunted deer, birds, and small game on land

  • Makah women gathered clams and shellfish, berries


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MAKAH WEAPONS & TOOLS

  • Makah hunters used harpoons tipped with mussel shells and bows and arrows

  • Fishermen used hook and line or wooden fish traps.

  • In war, Makah men fired their bows or fought with spears and war clubs

  • Makah warriors would wear armor made of hardened elk hide.


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SUMMARY

All the tribes were so interesting. The geography of the tribes were all different. The plain Indians climate was warm so they found a lot of bison, the desert southwest Indians climate was very hot sometimes it was so hot that they staid inside the whole day, the pacific Northwest's climate was probably cold so they had to wear warm clothing, and the Eastern woodlands climate was very cold so they didn’t find very much meet. they had to depend on corn and fruit.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • WWW.INDIANFACTSFORKIDS.COM

  • WWW.GOOGLE.COM

  • WWW.NATIVEAMERICANTRIBES.COM

  • WWW.NATIVEAMERICANFACTS/LINKS.COM

  • WWW.NATIVEAMERICANTRIBESANDCOLURES.COM

  • WWW.NATIVEAMERICANINFORMATION.COM


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