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Universal Access in the Information Society: Achievements, Challenges and Promises. Constantine Stephanidis Institute of Computer Science Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas Heraklion, Crete, Greece e-mail: [email protected] Department of Computer Science University of Crete.

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Universal access in the information society achievements challenges and promises l.jpg

Universal Access in the Information Society: Achievements, Challenges and Promises

Constantine Stephanidis

Institute of Computer Science Foundation for Research and Technology-HellasHeraklion, Crete, Greecee-mail: [email protected]

Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Crete


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Universal Access in the Information Society

  • User Interfaces for All

  • Policy initiatives, standardisation, legislation

  • A roadmap towards an Information Society for All

  • Conclusions

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


The information society l.jpg

  • Telecoms industry

  • PSTN

  • Cable networks

  • Satellite networks

  • Broadcasting

  • Mobile networks

  • IT Industry

  • Computers

  • Software

  • Interfaces

  • Information/Entertainment

  • industries

  • Information

  • servers/services

  • Audio-visual products

  • Films

  • Music, & Photos

Information

Society

The Information Society

FUSION

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


Towards an information society l.jpg
Towards an Information Society

Programming techniques

AI Techniques

i 3

Keyboard

Direct Manipulation

Multimodal Interface

Commands

Metaphor (GUI)

Hypermedia

Hardware Architecture

Software Architecture

Intuitive Information Processing

Fast Computation

Productivity Enhancement

Support for Social activities

Scientist’s tool

Tool for Business work

Tool for access in the IS

Specialists

Business Users

Personal users

80s - 90s

60s-70s

90s - 21 century

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Technological paradigm shift

Characteristics of a changing paradigm

  • interaction-intensive

  • collaboration intensive

  • group-centred

  • distributed (across the Global Internet)

50s-60s

70s-80s

80s-90s

21st century

Calculation-based

in scientific

applications

Data-based /

forms processing

for business

applications

Personal productivity

tools in business

applications

Group-centred

and communication-

centred computing /

interaction intensive

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Critical trends

People become more and more dependent on computer technology

Users are not necessarily computer experts

(as opposed to users of previous

generations of

computers)

Computers

penetrate all life

situations (work,

entertainment,

education…)

There is a need for systems for all, access for all and high interaction

quality

Computer applications

and services provide an ever increasing functionality

and complexity for everyday tasks

Computer users have diverse abilities, skills, requirements and preferences

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Challenges in the Information Society

  • The Information Society has the potential to improve the quality of life of citizens, the efficiency of our social and economic organisation and to reinforce cohesion.

    But also,

    • May lead to the creation of a two-tier society of “have” and “have-nots”, in which only a part of the population has access to the new technology, is comfortable using it and can fully enjoy the benefits.

    • There is a danger that ordinary citizens may reject the new information culture and its instruments.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Acceptability of Information Society Technologies

  • Acceptability of the emerging Information Society by all citizens ultimately depends on the accessibility and usability of the associated technologies.

  • Therefore, it is important :

    • to develop high quality user interfaces, accessible and usable by a diverse user population with different abilities, skills, requirements and preferences,

    • in a variety of contexts of use, and through a variety of interaction technologies.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Users and context of use

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Interaction platforms: beyond the desktop

  • shift towards non-desktop support systems

    • mobile and wearable devices

    • information and communication support

  • essential system characteristics

    • intuitive, multi-modal interaction

    • tailorability / self-adaptation

    • intelligence

    • reliability and robustness

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Universal Access

  • Universal Access concerns the right of all citizens to obtain and maintain access to a society-wide pool of information resources and interpersonal communication facilities, given the varieties of context of use.

  • To this end, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has a critical and catalytic role to play.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Universal Design (or Design for All )

Universal Design in the Information Society is:

  • the conscious and systematic effort to proactively apply principles and methods, and employ appropriate tools,

  • in order to develop IT&T products and services which are accessible and usable by all citizens,

    • thus avoiding the need for a posteriori adaptations, or specialised design.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Universal Design : levels of concern

Design for All

PC

TV

Mobile

phones

User Interface

Level

Kiosks

Communication

protocols

Telecommunications

Infrastructure

Bandwidth

Satellite

links

Web

Application Domain &

Services Level

Work

Education

Social

Healthcare

Entertainment

Accommodating Diversity

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Universal Design in HCI

  • Recognises, respects, values and attempts to accommodate the broadest possible range of human abilities, requirements and preferences

  • Eliminates the need for ‘special features’ and fosters individualisation and end-user acceptability

  • Fosters a pro-active strategy, postulating that accessibility and quality of interaction need to be embedded into a product at design time

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Introducing the concept of UI4All

UI4ALL

User Interfaces

for All

Meet Individual

Requirements, Abilities

& Preferences

Citizens in the

Information

Society

Universal

Access

User Interface

Accessibility

U2I

HCI

anytime

Design for All

anybody

anywhere

Quality of Interaction

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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User Interfaces for All (1/2)

  • The concept of User Interfaces forAllwas introduced in 1995 as a new perspective into HCI

  • Itprovides a principled and systematic approach towards proactivelycoping with diversity inthe user population, the nature of work, the contexts of use and the user access media by providing appropriate (multiple) solutions tailored to the individual user needs and context of use

  • It is not a single solution for everybody!

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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User Interfaces for All (2/2)

  • Diversity concerns:

    • users

      • with different cultural, educational, training and employment background

      • novice and experienced

      • very young and elderly

      • with different types of disabilities

    • using different interaction platforms

    • in different contexts and scenarios of use

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Shortcomings in the current generation of UIST (1/2)

  • Assumptions about the end-user of an interactive application

    • Able-bodied

    • Possessing immediate access to the computer

    • Narrow context of use

    • Predetermined usage patterns

  • Assumptions about target platforms

    • Visual embodiment of the desktop

    • Limited interaction styles

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Shortcomings in the current generation of UIST (2/2)

  • User interface development remains a programming-intensive as opposed to design-intensive task

  • Single-artefact orientation as opposed to polymorphic design

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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The case of people with disabilities

  • Traditionally under-served by technological developments

  • Early accessibility efforts were largely based on a reactive approach:

    • Post-development modifications

    • Ad-hoc adaptations

    • No possibility for generalisation, or reusability

    • High costs in terms of development

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Accessibility approaches

  • Reactive approach

    • aims to adapt products so as to build the required accessibility features

    • Assistive Technology solutions address problems introduced by a previous generation of technology

  • Proactive approach

    • aims to proactively account for accessibility by taking appropriate actions during the early phases of a product's life cycle

      • Active Accessibility® initiative (by Microsoft)

      • JavaTM Accessibility (by Sun)

      • Unified User Interface development platform (EC ACCESS consortium)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Attaining User Interfaces for All

  • The concept of Unified User Interfaces was introduced in 1995

  • Unified User Interface Development Method

    • a new user interface development process

  • Unified User Interface Architecture

    • a new architectural framework for engineering self-adapting user interfaces

  • Unified User Interface Development Environment

    • a new set of tools supporting the user interface development life-cycle (requirements capture, design, implementation, evaluation)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


The concept of a unified user interface l.jpg

A unified interface comprises a single (i.e. unified) interface implementation, encompassing alternative interactivebehaviours and sub-dialogues suitable for different user groups.

The concept of a Unified User Interface

U2I

User & context

Information

adaptation

process

User

Accessibility & High Quality of Interaction

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


Unified user interface development platform l.jpg

Unified design method

USE-IT(interactive designassistance)

Sherlock (guideline management system)

I-GET(user interfacegeneration)

Non-visual interactiontoolkits

Augmented windows toolkits

Unified User Interface development platform

Requirements Analysis

Polymorphic task decomposition

Design

Prototyping & Implementation

Evaluation

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Unified User Interfaces in practice: the AVANTI Web browser

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Typical Browser Instance

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Adaptability

  • Adaptability refers to self-adaptation which is based on knowledge (concerning the user, the environment, the context of use, etc.) available to (or, acquired by) the system prior to the initiation of interaction, and which leads to adaptations that also precede the commencement of interaction.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptability (1/4)

Feedback on operation

completion (here,

bookmark addition)

Links presented

as buttons

Link replication

and structure

overview pane

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptability (2/4)

Interaction for motor-

impaired: automatically

scanned window

manipulation toolbar

Interaction for motor-

impaired: automatically

scanned HTML elements

(including image-maps)

Interaction for motor-

impaired: all GUI objects

accessible through

automatic scanning

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptability (3/4)

Interaction for motor-

impaired: on-screen

keyboard for text input

Interaction for motor-

impaired: keyboard

layouts that speed

up interaction (e.g.

by following letter-

frequency criteria)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptability (4/4)

Adapting to the context of use: kiosk mode operation

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Adaptivity

  • Adaptivity refers to self-adaptation which is based on knowledge (concerning the user, the environment, the context of use, etc.) that is acquired and / or maintained by the system during interactive sessions (e.g., through monitoring techniques), and which leads to adaptations that take place while the user is interacting with the system.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptivity (1/3)

The interface’s response

to the detection of the fact

that the user seems incapable

to complete the task of selecting

a link from the “Link Bar”

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptivity (2/3)

A simple dialog from which

the user selects and loads

previously visited documents...

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Instances of Adaptivity (3/3)

... gets converted to the

same dialogue with integrated

guidance, if the user seems to

be unable to comprehend

its use.

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Comparing traditional and unified interface design

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Comparing traditional and unified interface development

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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User Interfaces for All -Concepts, Methods, and Tools

  • Published by LEA (2001)

    • hardbound, 760 pages, 30 chapters

  • a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field, including:

    • contributions from a variety of theoretical and applied disciplines

    • research, development and policy efforts worldwide

    • a detailed account of, and rationale for, the Unified User Interface Development methodology and tool platform

    • open and future research issues

http://www.erlbaum.com/Books/searchintro/BookDetailscvr.cfm?ISBN=0-8058-2967-9

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Impediments to Universal Design

  • Current status of the mainstream industry

  • Assistive Technology prevalent practice

  • Attitude of consumers

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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What is still needed?

  • Additional R&D to facilitate a sound research base for Design for All in the Information Society

  • Support measures which ensure diffusion and adoption

  • International collaboration to facilitate

    • knowledge exchange

    • experience sharing

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Policy options

  • Three main policy options

    • Standardisation

    • Legislation

    • Collaborative R&D

  • It is likely that none of the above by itself is sufficient to ensure the desirable results

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Analytical criteria

  • Each option will need to be analysed in terms of:

    • target objective

    • pre-requisites

    • potential shortcomings

    • the role of non-market institutions

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Standardisation (1/2)

  • Target

    • consolidation of knowledge

    • guidance

  • Pre-requisites

    • solid R&D base

    • timely intervention

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Standardisation (2/2)

  • Shortcomings

    • lock on effect

    • appropriate recommendations

    • user involvement

    • industrial participation

    • not possible in highly competitive industries

  • Role of non-market institutions

    • funding standardisation activities

    • dissemination of knowledge

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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International standards

  • ISO SC4 WG5

    • ISO TS 16071 (Draft) in press

  • W3C-WAI guidelines (de facto standard)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


Hci standardisation l.jpg
HCI Standardisation

  • Introduction of a new work item within ISO 9241 TC 159 / WG 5 / SC 4 (Software Ergonomics) pertaining to the issue of accessibility of interactive applications and telematic services by user groups with different abilities and requirements (e.g., people with disabilities)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


Us national standards l.jpg
US National Standards

  • Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards, Final Rule, under Section 508 of Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998

  • ANSI/HFES 200 (Accessibility)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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EU member states standardisation initiatives

  • Nordic Initiative on Standards for Disabled and Elderly people (NORDICT)

  • Health Informatics; Computer Applications for People with disabilities; Accessibility requirements for Computer platforms, (AENOR, Spain)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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European Union Standards

  • ICTSB Project

    • No standards on Design for all

    • Identification of future standardisation needs for ICT

  • CEN/TC 293 Technical aids for disabled persons

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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W3C-WAI

  • Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), in coordination with organizations around the world, pursues accessibility of the Web through five primary areas of work:

    • technology,

    • guidelines,

    • tools,

    • education and outreach,and

    • research and development.

  • http://www.w3.org/WAI/

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Legislation (1/2)

  • Target

    • reinforcement

  • Pre-requisites

    • demand already articulated

    • commitment

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Legislation (2/2)

  • Potential shortcomings

    • difficult due to industry opposition and tendency to by-pass

    • lack of user demand

    • lack of awareness

  • Role of non-market institutions

    • initiate

    • sustain

    • monitor

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Legislation – North America

  • USA

    • Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (section 504)

    • Americans with Disability Act (1990)

    • Telecommunications Act of 1996 (section 255)

    • Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 (section 508)

  • Canada

    • Canadian Human Rights Act of 1977

    • Universal Access Project

      (http://www.fis.utoronto.ca/research/iprp/ua/)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Legislation - Australia

  • Disability Discrimination Act 1992

    http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/dda1992264/

  • New South Wales Anti-Discrimination Act 1997

    http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/aa1977204/

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Legislation - Europe

  • United Kingdom

    • Disability Discrimination Act of 1995

  • Portugal

    • Report and Resolution by the Parliament of Portugal regarding Web Accessibility

      http://www.acessibilidade.net/petition/parliament_report.html

  • Scandinavia

    • Legislation of the Nordic countries

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Collaborative R&D (1/3)

  • Target

    • establish common R&D agenda

    • provide a solid basis of R&D results

    • promote cohesion

  • Pre-requisites

    • cross-industry focus

    • reciprocal investments

    • willingness and commitment

    • favourable conditions for transfer

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Collaborative R&D (2/3)

  • Potential shortcomings

    • it does not guarantee exploitation

    • technology must be emerging

    • special conditions of sources and recipients

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Collaborative R&D (3/3)

  • Role of non-market institutions

    • funding of R&D work

    • facilitating collaboration

    • offering guidance

    • undertaking technological forecasting

    • provision of incentives

    • establishing favourable conditions

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Information Society Technologies Programme (IST)

  • “Creating a User Friendly Information Society”

  • European Union's Fifth RTD Framework Programme (1998-2002)

  • Integrated research programme that builds on the convergence of information processing, communications and media technologies

  • IST has an indicative budget of 3.6 billion Euro, and is managed by the Information Society DG of the European Commission

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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NSF-funded projects on Universal Access

  • http://www.interact.nsf.gov/cise/html.nsf/html/access?OpenDocument

  • a number of projects have been funded by NSF under the call multi-year research focus on Universal Access beginning in 1999, conducted jointly by the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the Knowledge and Cognitive Systems (KCS) Programs within the Information and Intelligent Systems Division

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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ISF Information Society for AlL 1997 - 2000 (1/2)

  • First step towards the establishment of a favourable environment for the creation of an Information Society accessible and acceptable by all citizens

  • network for collaboration and exchange

    • 1st meeting and workshop, San Francisco, USA, August 29, 1997

    • 2nd meeting and workshop, Crete, Greece, June 15-16, 1998

    • 3rd meeting and workshop, Munich, Germany, August 22-23, 1999

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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ISF Information Society for All 1997 - 2000 (2/2)

White Papers

  • Toward an Information Society for All: An International R&D AgendabyStephanidis C. (Ed.), Salvendy, G., Akoumianakis, D., Bevan, N., Brewer, J., Emiliani, P.L., Galetsas, A., Haataja, S., Iakovidis, I., Jacko, J., Jenkins, P., Karshmer, A., Korn, P., Marcus, A., Murphy, H., Stary, C., Vanderheiden, G., Weber, G., & Ziegler, J. (1998). In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (2), 107-134.

    http://www.ics.forth.gr/proj/at-hci/files/white_paper_1998.pdf

  • Toward an Information Society for All: HCI challenges and R&D recommendationsbyStephanidis, C. (Ed.), Salvendy, G., Akoumianakis, D., Arnold, A., Bevan, N., Dardailler, D., Emiliani, P.L., Iakovidis, I., Jenkins, P., Karshmer, A., Korn, P., Marcus, A., Murphy, H., Oppermann, C., Stary, C., Tamura, H., Tscheligi, M., Ueda, H., Weber, G., & Ziegler, J. (1999). In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (1), 1-28.

    http://www.ics.forth.gr/proj/at-hci/files/white_paper_1999.pdf

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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R&D agenda

  • 1st White Paper

    • Design Process, Methods & Tools

    • User-oriented challenges

    • Input / Output Technology

    • User interface architectures

  • 2nd White Paper

    • Promote the development of environments of use

    • Support communities of users

    • Extend user centred design to support new virtualities

    • Accompanying measures

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Accompanying measures

  • Articulating demand for Design for All and Universal Access

  • Supporting the industry

  • Awareness & knowledge dissemination

  • Technology transfer

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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eEurope “An Information Society for All”

  • EC President Prodi launches “eEurope” Initiative to accelerateEurope’s transformation into an Information Society (press release IP/99/953)

  • expected positive impact on employment,growth, productivity and social cohesion

  • Key objectives

    • Bringing every citizen, home, school, business and administration on-line

    • Creating a digitally literate and entrepreneurial Europe

    • Ensuring a socially inclusive Information Society

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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From eEurope to eEurope 2002

“eParticipation” for the disabled

eEurope Initiative 1999

“eParticipation” for the people with disabilities

  • including the elderly and other sectors of the population with specific needs

    Progress report for the Special European Council Lisbon, 23 and 24 March 2000

    Participation for all in the knowledge-based economy

  • extended to include access for all disadvantaged groups

    eEurope 2002 Draft Action Plan for the European Council in Feira 19 and 20 June 2000

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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eEurope 2002 - 11 Priority areas

  • A cheaper, faster and secure Internet

    • cheaper and faster Internet access

    • faster Internet for researchers and students

    • secure networks and smart cards

  • Investing in people and skills

    • European youth into the digital age

    • working in the knowledge-based economy

    • participation for all in the knowledge-based economy

  • Stimulate the use of the Internet

    • accelerating e-commerce

    • government online: electronic access to public services

    • health online

    • digital content for global networks

    • intelligent transport systems

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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ERCIM Working Group “User Interfaces for All”, 1995-present

  • Aims at planning a path that will bring together researchers and teams working in the different ERCIM organisations (but also organisations beyond ERCIM or the European boundaries), who

    • share common interests and aspirations

    • would like to contribute to the endeavours towards making the emerging Information Society equally accessible to all

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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IS4ALL Thematic Network (1/3)

  • IST-1999-14101 Programme - IS4ALL, “Information Society for All” (2000 - 2003).

    • A three-year IST-funded project which seeks to establish on a formal basis a wide, interdisciplinary and closely collaborating “network of experts” (Working Group) to provide the European Health Telematics industry with a comprehensive information package detailing how to appropriate the benefits of universal design

  • Started 1st of October 2000

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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IS4ALL Thematic Network (2/3)

  • Project’s focus

    • Universal access as a quality attribute with functional and non-functional implications

      • content organisation and management (in so far as it impacts on interaction design)

      • user interface development

      • the processes involved

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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IS4ALL Thematic Network (3/3)

  • Health Telematics specific results

    • A process model detailing how universal access can be accounted for in Health Telematics

    • Prototypical implementations of Healthcare-specific artefacts (electronic healthcare records) & recommendations

    • Universal access filters in Health Telematics

    • Design rationale and examples

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Dissemination channels (1/2)

  • The 1st International Conference on "Universal Access In Human-Computer Interaction" (UAHCI) in co-operation with HCI International 2001

    • August 5 - 10, 2001

    • New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

    • http://hcii2001.engr.wisc.edu

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Dissemination channels (2/2)

  • Springer International Journal “Universal Access in the Information Society”

    Editor-in-chief: C. Stephanidis

    • 1st issue spring 2001

    • http://link.springer.de/journals/UAIS

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Summary & conclusions (1/2)

  • A continuum of activities, including RTD and horizontal actions

  • Increasing awareness and appreciation of the technical challenges

    • International forums and scientific committees

    • Conferences and scientific journals

  • Need for additional technical work

  • Application in new fields of inquiry

    • e.g., Health Telematics (IS4ALL),Education (SEN-IST-NET)

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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Summary & conclusions (2/2)

We need ...

  • Common vocabulary

  • International collaboration

  • Critical role of non-market institutions

Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of California, 23 March 2001


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