Maritime transport of passengers. Dott.ssa Simona Sanguineti [email protected] Historical passengers overview. Transoceanic passengers flow in the first half of 20 th century. Beginning of ferry transport.
Transoceanic passengers flow in the first half of 20th century
Savannah (1819) the first ship that crossed the Ocean with steam-assisted engine
Cunard Line the first shipping company to offer regularly scheduled service from U.S. to England. Concentrated on the delivery of the Royal Mail, not on passengers at all. 115 passengers.
1819 ship with auxiliary steam engines and two paddle wheels. Savannah river – Liverpool in 27 days.
1831 first cross under steam, but it was need to stop engines every few days for 24 hours. During this time it depended entirely on sails
1838 “Sirius” was the first ship to cross the Atlantic using only steam power
1845 “Great Britain”. First ship with iron hull, double bottom and screw propulsion. It was for many years the largest ship in the world
1819 Savannah river – Liverpool in 27 days
1860s Liverpool – New York in 10 days
1890s Liverpool – New York in less than 6 days
1936 Southampton -New York 3 days
1900 10 knots
1915 12 knots
1935 30 knots
Today more than 40 knots
1840s Cunard Line, monopoly of the North Atlantic
1850s Competition between Cunard Line and Collins line
1890s German enter in the competition. German Line overtook British lines in terms of size and speed.
German Companies left a greater imprint on
shipboard style. They called a single
architect/designer for the artistic control for
designing a passenger liner’s interior.
Comfort and luxury would be them watchwords.
By the early 20th century, the Mauritania and Lusitania (Cunard Line) started the tradition of dressing for dinner and advertised the romance of the voyage.
Olympic and Titanic (White Star Line) were the most luxurious passenger ships never seen (complete with swimming pool and tennis court)
The sinking of the Titanic in 1912 devasted the White Star Line
Cunard Line bought White Star Line resulting in Cunard White Star (1934)
Ferry ships: vessels used to carry passengers, goods and vehicles across relatively short distance. Ferries generally connect two or three point.
Cruise ships: vessels often regarded as “resort at sea”. Unlike ferries, cruise liners are “the destination” rather than a way of reaching destination
Source: Lloyd’s Register, 2001
According to IMO, a HSC is a craft capable of maximum speed, in meters per second (m/s), equal or exceeding:
Where (D/d) = volume of displacement corresponding to the design waterline (m3).
IATA “International Travel and Tourism Training Programme” – 2005
J.Wang, S. Mcowan “Fast passenger ferries and their future” – Maritime Policy and Management - 2005