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Maritime transport of passengers. Dott.ssa Simona Sanguineti [email protected] Historical passengers overview. Transoceanic passengers flow in the first half of 20 th century. Beginning of ferry transport.

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Maritime transport of passengers

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Maritime transport of passengers l.jpg

Maritime transport of passengers

Dott.ssa Simona Sanguineti

[email protected]


Historical passengers overview l.jpg

Historical passengers overview

Transoceanic passengers flow in the first half of 20th century


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Beginning of ferry transport

Savannah (1819)  the first ship that crossed the Ocean with steam-assisted engine

Cunard Line  the first shipping company to offer regularly scheduled service from U.S. to England. Concentrated on the delivery of the Royal Mail, not on passengers at all. 115 passengers.


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Evolution in technology - XIX century

1819  ship with auxiliary steam engines and two paddle wheels. Savannah river – Liverpool in 27 days.

1831  first cross under steam, but it was need to stop engines every few days for 24 hours. During this time it depended entirely on sails

1838  “Sirius” was the first ship to cross the Atlantic using only steam power

1845  “Great Britain”. First ship with iron hull, double bottom and screw propulsion. It was for many years the largest ship in the world


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Historical speed

1819  Savannah river – Liverpool in 27 days

1860s  Liverpool – New York in 10 days

1890s  Liverpool – New York in less than 6 days

1936  Southampton -New York 3 days

***

1900 10 knots

1915 12 knots

1935 30 knots

Today more than 40 knots


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Competition in XIX century

1840s  Cunard Line, monopoly of the North Atlantic

1850s  Competition between Cunard Line and Collins line

1890s  German enter in the competition. German Line overtook British lines in terms of size and speed.


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XX Century

German Companies left a greater imprint on

shipboard style. They called a single

architect/designer for the artistic control for

designing a passenger liner’s interior.

Comfort and luxury would be them watchwords.

By the early 20th century, the Mauritania and Lusitania (Cunard Line) started the tradition of dressing for dinner and advertised the romance of the voyage.

Olympic and Titanic (White Star Line) were the most luxurious passenger ships never seen (complete with swimming pool and tennis court)

The sinking of the Titanic in 1912 devasted the White Star Line

Cunard Line bought White Star Line resulting in Cunard White Star (1934)


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Size of some Ships

World file…


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The end of transatlantic ferries

  • World War I  The building of new ships was interrupted and many older line were used as troop transport

  • The years between 1920 and 1940 were considered the most glamorous years for transatlantic passenger ships. American tourist interested in visiting Europe replaced immigrant passengers.

  • World War II

    • Increasing air travel and the first non-stop flight to Europe in 1958 marked the ending of transatlantic business for ocean liners


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Definitions

Ferry ships: vessels used to carry passengers, goods and vehicles across relatively short distance. Ferries generally connect two or three point.

Cruise ships: vessels often regarded as “resort at sea”. Unlike ferries, cruise liners are “the destination” rather than a way of reaching destination


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Typeof ferry ships

  • Passenger-only ferry services. Generally are used smaller and faster boats. Ferry rates depend on the distance travelled and the time of the day and season.

  • Passenger/vehicle ferry services. Vehicles con be cars, lorries or trucks, motorcycles, coaches and buses. Rates vary widely but are usually based on the type, weight and numbers of vehicles transported.

  • Passenger/train ferry services. Often this ferries have permanent on-board rail tracks.

  • Cruise ferries. They are luxury ferries and take passengers on mini-cruises.


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Type of cruise ships

  • Super mega (giant) ships. Weight more than 100,000 tons and carry over 2,600 passengers.

  • Mega ships. Weight between 70,000 and 100,000 tons and carry between 1,600 and 2,600 passengers.

  • Large ships. Weight between 20,000 and 70,000 tons and carry between 500 and 1,600 passengers

  • Small ships. Weight less than 20,000 tons and carry up to 500 passengers.

  • Barge, river and speciality cruises. Smaller boats usually operating on inland waterways with limited passengers capacity.


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Maritime passenger transport

Ferry

Cruise

  • Derived demand

  • Fixed routes

  • Ro/ro ships

  • Search for speed

  • Final good

  • Variable routes

  • Specialized ships

  • Search for comfort

Cruise Ferry


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The world fleet

Source: Lloyd’s Register, 2001


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Passengers ferries

  • Great variability of capital costs (related to speed, capacity, etc.)

  • Low operational costs (port costs, crew costs)

  • The service is homogenous

  • Mainly used to link islands with mainland

  • Mainly used by commuters and/or by frequently users

  • Demand is proportional to the population of the regions that limit the voyage or to the attractive power of the region

  • The service is sold at a low price

  • The service links only two or three ports


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Cruises

  • Huge amount of capital costs per ship

  • High operational costs (crew represents about 1/3 of passengers)

  • Great differentiation of service (in classes, type of cabins, days per trip, etc.)

  • The service scheduled considers one home port and some ports of call


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Cruise ferries

  • Sort of hybrid service introduced in the Med in the ’90s

  • Ferries (ro/ro passengers ships) with a high standard of services

  • Short routes mainly offered when there is an excess of capacity on ferries

  • Ratio of member of crew per passenger is higher than ferries and lower than cruises


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Passengers market


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Ferries vs. Cruises in ports


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Cruise passengers in Genoa


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Seasonality and trends


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High Speed Craft (HSC)

According to IMO, a HSC is a craft capable of maximum speed, in meters per second (m/s), equal or exceeding:

VHSC=3.7 (D/d)0.1667

Where (D/d) = volume of displacement corresponding to the design waterline (m3).

  • Monohull

  • Catamaran

  • Hovercraft

  • Surface Effect Ships (SES)

  • Hydrofoil


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References

IATA “International Travel and Tourism Training Programme” – 2005

J.Wang, S. Mcowan “Fast passenger ferries and their future” – Maritime Policy and Management - 2005

www.greatoceanliners.net

www.oceansatlas.com

www.scriptorium.lib.duke.edu

www.pbs.org


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