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Commercial production of biofuels PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Commercial production of biofuels. Ethanol from sugar cane. Ethanol from corn. Biodiesel from oils. Sugar cane to ethanol. The Brazil Story. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTu5apw7AjQ&NR=1. Sugar cane, sugar cane bagasse. Sugar cane bagasse. Processing. Ethanol. Sucrose.

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Commercial production of biofuels

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Commercial production of biofuels l.jpg

Commercial production of biofuels

Ethanol from sugar cane

Ethanol from corn

Biodiesel from oils


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Sugar cane to ethanol

The Brazil Story

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTu5apw7AjQ&NR=1


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Sugar cane, sugar cane bagasse

Sugar cane bagasse

Processing

Ethanol


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Sucrose

  • Sucrose accounts for little more than 30% of the chemical energy stored in the mature plant; 35% is in the leaves, which are left in the fields during harvest, and 35% are in the fibrous material (bagasse) left over from pressing

  • Sucrase or acid are needed to break down sucrose into glucose and fructose

α-D-glucopyranosyl- (1↔2)-β-D-fructofuranoside


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Sugar cane bioethanol

  • Brazil produces about 7 billion gallons of ethanol from sugar cane

  • Production cost $0.87/gallon, the lowest in the world

  • Fossil fuel energy used to make the fuel (input) compared with energy in the fuel (output) 1:8

  • Green house emission during production and use 56% less compared with gasoline


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Gasoline price


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History

  • 1920 utilization of ethanol as a transportation fuel

  • Early 1970,

    • 1973-oil embargo (oil 3x more expensive)

    • 1974-sugar prices

  • Late 1975 Brazilian National Alcohol program (20% blend)

  • Mid 1980

    • All the cars sold in Brazil ran on alcohol

  • Early 1990

    • Oil

    • Sugar


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2003 Total Flex Car (gasoline and ethanol) Gol-Volkswagen

Currently 85% of cars are flex

History


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Sugar cane in Brazil


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Fields of sugar cane in Brazil


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Sugar cane

  • Harvest after 1 year to 18 months

    • Harvest starts in April

    • 7 harvests before replanting

  • Harvested by hands or machinery

  • 20% of sugar cane are sugars

  • 600-800 gallons of ethanol/acre (more than 2x compared with corn)


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Problems

  • Environmental problems

    • Deforestation

    • Burning the cane pre-harvesting

    • Use of pesticides and herbicides

    • Utilization of fields next to the rivers (against Brazilian law)

  • Social problems

    • Pay

    • Hot, dirty and backbreaking

    • Snakes

    • Cuts

    • Air quality


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Corn to ethanol


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Rise of bioethanol (history)

  • H. Ford 1908

  • Sugar cane ethanol 1920

  • OPEC oil embargo (1973)

  • Methyl tertiary-butyl ether MTBE (started in 1992, phased out in 2000) (2-methoxy-2-methylpropane )

    • Good blending

    • Increase octant number

    • Cheap, produced from natural gas

    • Toxicity

  • Oil in Middle East $$$$


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Corn plant

Corn kernel (without the fibre)-starch alcohol

Corn fibre-lignocellulosic alcohol

Corn stover-lignocellulosic alcohol


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Chemical Composition of Starch


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US ethanol production

US ethanol product is currently about 9 billion gallons/year – largest in the world!


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Corn versus crude oil (US)


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Corn

  • One bushel of corn (56 pounds after husks and cobs are removed) provides:

    • 31.5 pounds of starch or

    • 33 pounds of sweetener or

    • 2.8 gallons of ethanol

      +

  • 13.5 pounds of gluten feed

  • 2.6  pounds of gluten meal

  • 1.5 pounds of corn oil


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Corn – Ethanol Process


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Corn to ethanol plants in US

Based on August 30th, 2006


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Biofuels-comparison


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Ethanol subsidy

  • Ethanol subsidy totals about $5 billion for 9 billion gallons of ethanol ($0.55 per gallon)

    • 51cents per gallon-federal blenders credit

    • Corn subsidies

  • Import tariff on foreign ethanol of 54 cent/gallon + 2.5% of import value import


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    Ethanol versus oil subsidy

    • Since 1968 ethanol industry had received $11.6 billion in tax incentives

    • Since 1968 oil industry had received over $150 billion in tax benefits.

    • Oil industry produced 1,068 times more energy

    • Subsidy per unit of energy was 54 times higher for ethanol (ethanol gets 54 cents oil gets 1cent).

    US General Accounting Office


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    Problems

    • Environmental problems

      • Greenhouse gas emission

        • Ethanol plants burn natural gas or coal to create the steam, adding to fossil fuel emission with CO2 from fermentation

      • Energy value

      • Pesticides, herbicides (nitrogen runoff from fertilizers)

      • Fertilizers (N, made with natural gas and diesel farm machinery)

      • Water demands: 3.6-6gallons of water/1 gallon of ethanol

    • Social problems

      • Competing with food industry

        • Doubling the price of corn (food riots in Mexico)


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    Problems land availability


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    Problems land availability

    • “The average US automobile, traveling 10,000 miles a year on pure ethanol (not a gasoline-ethanol mix) would need about 852 gallons of the corn-based fuel. This would take 11 acres to grow, based on net ethanol production. This is the same amount of cropland required to feed seven Americans”

    David Pimental Cornell University


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    Problems land availability

    • “If all the automobiles in the United States were fueled with 100 % ethanol, a total of about 97% of US land area would be needed to grow the corn feedstock. Corn would cover nearly the total land area of the United States”

    David Pimental Cornell University


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