Spoken ELF in engineering education in Sweden. Code and discourse features Recipient reactions Beyza Björkman [email protected] Outline. Higher education in Sweden: an ELF setting in respect of oral interaction The present project: Research questions and design
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A typical international Scandinavian (technical) university
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMMES 2007
45 International Master’s Programs in English
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EXCHANGES 2007
1,057 foreign exchange students
1,105 international master’s students
Around 100 nationalities with highly diverse backgrounds (Erasmus)
Two types of speech events:Lectures and student group-work
Digital recordings of authentic high-stakes communication from content courses(naturally occurring speech)
Key background literature:
What, if any, are the morphosyntactic commonalities of non-standard usage in monologic and dialogic speech events studied in the ELF setting examined?
Are the commonalities found the same with those described in the literature?
What kind of morphosyntactic non-standard usage results in disturbance in spoken ELF communication?
What are the discourse features in the two speech event types in the ELF setting examined?
Are the discourse features found the samewith those described in the literature?
What kind of morphosyntactic non-standard usage is perceived as irritating by speakers in ELF situations?
FORM (1, 2), COMMUNICATIVENESS (3, 4, 5), ATTITUDES (6)
Lectures: 21 (48 hrs)
Student group-work:24 (28 hrs)
20L1s, 61 speakers
(Dörnyei, 2001; Guilloteaux, 2007; Charles, Pecorari and Hunsten, 2009)
Student group-work: 4
HERE AND NOW
LOW REASONING DEMANDS
(Adapted from Robinson, 2001)
Clarification techniques (Penz, 2008)
terms and concepts
details and content of task
Metadiscursive comment on
discourse structure (gist, reformulation etc.)
Backchanneling and repetition (Dewey, 2006)
What is ’steam reforming’? It is a commercial way to produce hydrogen.
I don’t know if we’re supposed to know the code during the lab.
That’s not what I wanted to say.
That was my question.
First I’ll go through the time frame.
We have to check the distillation process.
<S4> why you always miss the lecture , sorry just curious </S4>
<S3> (curious) er sometimes i have some other lectures </S3>
<S4> other lectures the there's some conflict in the timetable </S4>
<S3> yeah </S3>
<S4> mhm </S4>
<S4> and sometimes [(xx)] </S>
<S4> [but it's] impossible impossible all time you there’s
there's a conflict for the all lecture @@ maybe you don't want to have lecture
you don't want to attend this </S4>
<S3> yes sometimes @@ </S3>
<S1> it's not interesting to you </S1>
<S4> @@ </S4>
<S3> it is but </S3>
<S1> but you're busy @@ </S1>
<S4> what's the time now oh it's from china time </S4>
<S1> i haven’t changed the time </S1>
<S4> (xx) we just talk about there's some island in </S4>
<S3> in greece </S3>
<S4> greece you're from greece </S4>
<S3> yeah </S3>
<S4> mhm </S4>
<S1> we should prepare a chair for the teacher </S1>
<S3> @@ </S3>
<S4> this one this one this one is for teacher i i will stand behind you </S4>
<S1> i think (we should have) other chair </S1>
<S4> mhm this . i think greece is a country (full of) charming and that’s why</S4>
<S3> mhm </S3>
<S4> full of charming </S4>
<S3> mhm </S3>
<S4> and that's why the greece (xx) refer to that kind of very how to say</S4>
<S1> greece </S1>
<S4> greece yes , beautiful and </S4>
<S1> yeah (incredible) </S1>
<S4> yes greece @@ </S4>
<S1> but er i have never been to greece </S1>
<S4> <NAME> have been to there he says he recommend to be there (later)</S4>
<S1> (we should) invite the teacher </S1>
<S4> (xx) </S4>
<S1> invite the teacher to our group </S1> (ERCA-090307-03)
<S1> say put that if you divide it by </S1>
<S2> yeah how much does it cost to produce it’s like how much it’s not the material like how much </S2>
<S1> no no no it’s it’s a the the investment [divided by] the number of [hours of] using it </S1>
<S2> [yeah] [yeah] </S2>
<S1> and the [operation] </S1>
<S2> [workers] operation </S2>
<S1> construction </S1>
<S3> production cost </S3>
<S1> production </S1>
<S2> ok </S2>
<S1> not the material not the material and the power consumption </S1>
<S2> uh that kind of stuff this is everything else but the material cost </S2>
<S1> and then you put the material cost </S1>
<S2> yeah then you have </S2>
<S3> i don’t think so </S3>
<S1> [you don’t think so] </S1>
<S2> [yeah] , ok so </S2>
<S1> [ok ok we do] anyway we we [check check] </S1>
<S2> [why do we] [why do we] why do we have done that then why do we done </S2>
<S3> we did that we thought that this was something else </S3>
<S2> yeah but this...</S2>
Speakers employ clarification strategies if communication is at risk
Task complexity and conditions: room for maneuver
Up to the lecturer whether to employ clarification strategies
Task complexity and conditions set by the lecturer only: little or no room for maneuverImplications for lecturing
LEARNERS OF ENGLISH Interlanguage features?
Norm presented overtly
Negative feedback in case of non-standard production
Non-standardness not kept= there are direct consequences in the form dimension (testing: grades etc.)
FAQ 2: Are ELF speakers learners of English?
Both must be developing their language ability.
A large proportion of instances are actually standard.
Breiteneder (2005), 20% Ranta (2006), 13%
Meierkord (2004), 9% 3% “doubtful constructions”
The present study: Low percentage of non-standard features
Remarkable commonalities across speech event types. (RQ1)
Some shared with previous findings. (RQ2)
(No who/which, invariable isn’t it tag etc.)
Little breakdown in communication (breakdown caused only by nonS question formulation). (RQ3)
Rich discourse: (RQ4 and 5)
Clarification techniques (unlike Penz)
Increased explicitness (similar to Mauranen, Dewey and Cogo)
Backchanelling, repetition (similar to Dewey and Cogo)
Topic abandonment only in social talk
Irritation at varying degrees toward all features. (RQ6)
They do not represent majority usage.
Björkman, B. (Forthcoming, 2009). ’ From code to discourse in spoken ELF’. In Mauranen, A. and Ranta, E. (Eds.). English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and findings. Cambridge Scholars Press.
Björkman, B. (In press, 2009). ’English as a Lingua Franca at a Swedish Technical University: An Effective Medium?’ Proceedings of the Annual BALEAP Conference: 'EAP in a globalising world: English as an academic lingua franca‘. Peter Lang.
Björkman, B. (2008). ‘English as the Lingua Franca of Engineering: the morphosyntax of academic speech events’. Nordic Journal of English Studies 7(3): 103-122.
Björkman, B. (2008). 'So where we are': Spoken lingua franca English at a Swedish technical university. English Today, 24 (2), 11-17.
Björkman, B. (2008). ‘'We' and 'you': pronouns and genre competence in oral technical descriptions’. In Lainio, J., & Leppänen, A. (Eds.), Linguistic Diversity and Sustainable Development (pp. 89-109). Swedish Science Press.