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Seminar. Reading:- Intuitive Control of a Planar Biped Walking Robot Jerry Pratt and Gill Pratt. Introduction. How is walking stabilised in “Intuitive Control” ? What is Virtual Model Control ? What is the “virtual toe point” ?. Intuitive Control.

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Introduction

- How is walking stabilised in “Intuitive Control” ?
- What is Virtual Model Control ?
- What is the “virtual toe point” ?

Intuitive Control

- What is the main criticism of “intuitive controllers”
- How can automatic learning techniques be used for “intuitive controllers” and what are the benefits of doing so ?

Control Strategies

- Discuss how height is stabilised in a biped.
- Discuss how pitch is stabilised in a biped.
- Discuss how speed is stabilised in a biped.
- Discuss how the swing leg placement is controlled in a biped.
- Discuss how the the support leg transitions are controlled in a biped

Biped Kinematics

- What does it mean to say that the “virtual toe point” is a commanded quantity, not a measured one ?
- Derive the forward kinematic map from frame {A} to frame {B}
- Derive the Jacobian ABJ.

Implementing Virtual Actuators

- What will be the joint torques (t,a,k,h) required to produce a force of (fx, fz, f) on the robot at point B ?
- Given that the joint torque t is zero derive a constraint equation for (fx, fz, f).
- Derive the relationship between the remaining joint torques (a,k,h) and the virtual force applied to B for (fz, f).

Biped Control

- The calculation of the virtual force does not include any terms for the robot mass and angular moments of inertia. How would you stop the robot falling ?

Dual Leg Implementation

- How can the joint torque problem be solved in the double support phase ?
- Are there any ways that this control can be improved ?

Spring Flamingo Implementation

- What constrains the spring flamingo robot to be a 2D biped ?
- How do the series elastic actuators work ?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of having the motors in the body and using cable drives to power the joints ?

Experimental Results

- Discuss the robustness properties of the spring flamingo robot and the walking control algorithm ?
- How would the algorithms be extended for a 3D biped robot system ?

Simulation Constructions Set

- Examine the Spring Flamingo and m2 simulations using the Yobotics Simulation Construction Set. (evaluation version available from www.Yobotics.com)
- Discuss the merits and problems of developing controllers in simulation and then transferring them to real robot systems ?

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