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Plant and Soil Science Plant pathogens and Pest Management Topic: Entomology/ insect Biology (2042). Brian Sobecki. Insect Facts . Study of insects is called “Entomology’ Insects have lived on earth for 250 million years. There are an estimated 1,000,000 species of insect on our planet.

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Plant and soil science plant pathogens and pest management topic entomology insect biology 2042 l.jpg

Plant and Soil SciencePlant pathogens and Pest ManagementTopic: Entomology/ insect Biology (2042)

Brian Sobecki


Insect facts l.jpg
Insect Facts

  • Study of insects is called “Entomology’

  • Insects have lived on earth for 250 million years.

  • There are an estimated 1,000,000 species of insect on our planet.

  • Insects can be helpful, neutral, or harmful to humans


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Biology of Insects

  • The body of an insect is divided into three parts the Head, Thorax, and Abdomen.

    • The word insect come from the Latin word ”insectum” which means “cut into”.

    • The segmented body gives them the advantage of movement and activity.


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Biology of Insects

  • Segmentation also provides efficiency. Each body segment is specialized into functions such as:

    • Securing food

    • Locomotion

    • Reproduction


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The Insect Body

  • The Head (contains antennae and Mouth parts)

    • Eyes are either simple or Compound.

    • Antennae are used for smelling and feeling.

    • Mouth parts are for either sucking or chewing.

      • Mouth parts are the most variable of all insect characteristics.

      • They are often used to determine the type of control measures that will be most effective for a particular insects.


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The Insect Body

  • The Thorax (Locomotion Segment)

    • Contains the wings and legs.

    • An insect may have zero, one or two pairs of wings.

    • The thorax also has three pairs of legs.


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The Insect Body

  • The Abdomen ( contains digestive, reproductive, respiratory and excretory organs)

    • Shrinks or swells according to the state of those organs.

    • Variations occurs when the insects eat, produces eggs or fills with excrement.


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Life Cycles

  • The several changes that insects go through to reach maturity is called Metamorphosis.

  • There are four variations or Metamorphosis

    • A few insects have no metamorphosis.

      • Insects emerge from eggs looking exactly like adults, except smaller

      • Example: Silverfish


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Life Cycles

  • Some insects go through Gradual metamorphosis.

    • They change shape gradually.

    • Example: Grasshopper and Cricket


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www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomywww.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy


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Life Cycleswww.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy

  • Other Insects have an incomplete metamorphosis.

    • Change gradually until they reach the last stage.

    • They change quickly into their last stage after their last molt. ( shedding of the outer layer of skin)

    • Example: Dragonfly

www.stephenville.tamu.edu/~fmitchel/dragonfly/photo/aumb_2w.htm

www.stephenville.tamu.edu/~fmitchel/dragonfly/photo/aumb_2w.htm


Life cycles12 l.jpg
Life Cycleswww.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy

  • Some have a complete metamorphosis.

    • Insects go through Four stages: Egg, Larvae, Pupa, and Adult

    • None of the young stages look anything like the adult stage.

    • Example: Moths and Butterflies


Slide13 l.jpg

www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomywww.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy


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Life Cycleswww.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy

  • Understanding metamorphosis will help you better understand techniques of insect control.

    • Egg and pupa stages are most resistant to chemical spray.

    • The larval stage are the most destructive, but most vulnerable to spray.

    • The adult stage is also destructive, but controllable.


Pictures l.jpg
Pictureswww.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy

  • (All butterflies pictures) The Butterfly Guide, www.butterflies.com/guide.html

  • Aeshnidea; Digital Dragonflies, www.stephenville.tamu.edu/~fmitchel/dragonfly/photo/aumb_2w.htm

  • Insect Biology and Ecology: a primer; Biological control: A guide to natural enemies in North America; Weeden, Shelton, and Hoffmann; www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/primer.html#anatomy


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