Origin and evolution of life on earth week 5 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 39

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5). Searching for the origin Functional beginnings of life Focus on enzymes (lab) From chemistry to biology at the molecular level Prokaryotes and oxygen Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change

Download Presentation

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5)

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Origin and evolution of life on earth week 5 l.jpg

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5)

  • Searching for the origin

  • Functional beginnings of life

    • Focus on enzymes (lab)

    • From chemistry to biology at the molecular level

  • Prokaryotes and oxygen

  • Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity

  • Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change

  • Evolutions of humans (what a bore!)

  • Conclusions


Searching for the origin l.jpg

Searching for the Origin

  • What is the question?

  • The tools and methodologies

    • Principles of chemistry (e.g., chemistry of water)

    • Principles of physics (e.g., 1st and 2nd Law of TD, climate)

    • Principles of biology (e.g., key macromolecules)

    • Principles of geology (e.g., radiometric dating)

    • Occam’s razor

  • Conclusions: plausible scenario of the events and processes that lead to the origin of life


Searching for the origin3 l.jpg

Searching for the Origin

  • When did life begin?

  • Evidence

    • Widespread life forms (3.5 B years ago)

    • Stromatolites (3.5 B years ago)

    • Fossilized cells (3.5 B years ago)

    • Radiometric dating: carbon isotopes (3.85 B years ago)

      • Carbon 12 versus Carbon 13

  • Range of dates: 4.1 to 3.85 B years ago

  • Conclusions

    • Life arose late in the Hadean Eon

    • Life colonized planet in very short time frame (< 500 M years)


Searching for the origin comparative genomics l.jpg

Searching for the Origin: Comparative Genomics

  • Comparative morphology versus comparative genomics

  • “Living Fossils” of DNA and RNA

    • Sequence of nucleotides in DNA and genome

    • Pattern and process of change in sequences

    • Comparing sequences reveals a pattern/order

  • Methodology of comparison – rRNA (ribosomal RNA)


Searching for the origin three branches of life forms l.jpg

Searching for the Origin: Three Branches of Life Forms

  • Results from comparative genomics

    • Three major domains

      • Bacteria

      • Archaea

      • Eukarya

  • Common ancestor analysis

  • Comparison to organisms today

    • Deep sea volcanic vents

    • Thermophiles (hyperthermophiles)

    • Comparison to environment of Hadean Eon


Searching for the origin6 l.jpg

Searching for the Origin

Domain Domain Domain

Bacteria Archaea Eukarya

Common

Ancestor


Searching for the origin at what place on earth l.jpg

Searching for the Origin: At What Place on Earth?

  • Options

    • Continental landscapes

    • Shallow pools

    • Hot springs

    • Deep sea vents

  • Data to support one or the other

    • Comparative genomics

    • Chemical energy (hydrogen sulfide)

      FeS + H2S FeS2 +H2 + Free Energy

  • Conclusion: deep sea vents

    • Probability of bombardment


Beginnings of life on earth l.jpg

Beginnings of Life on Earth

  • Organic chemistry*

  • Transition from chemistry to biology

  • Panspermia

  • The evolution of sophisticated features of metabolism and information brokers

  • Conclusions

    _________

    * Enzymes first


Catalysis in living systems enzymes l.jpg

Catalysis in Living Systems: Enzymes

  • Introduction

    • Most reactions are very, very slow (not sufficient to sustain life)

    • Mechanisms to accelerate specific reactions: preferential acceleration

    • Evolutionary significance: positive fitness

  • Accelerants = Catalysts = Enzymes

    • Proteins (relate to information brokers)

    • Change rate of reactions

    • High degree of specificity

    • Regenerated (not consumed)


Enzymes how they work l.jpg

Enzymes: How They Work

  • Base case for reactions to occur

    • Reactants (A-B and C-D)

    • Products (A-D and B-C)

  • Energy analysis

    • Free energy (net change in energy between reactants and products; DG)

      • Exothermic reactions (release energy/spontaneous)

      • Endothermic reactions (require energy to proceed)

    • Energy of activation (transition state or “hill”)

      • EA in diagram


Catalysis in living systems enzymes11 l.jpg

Catalysis in Living Systems: Enzymes

Transition State

EA

Free Energy %G

A-B

C-D

%G

A-D

B-C


Catalysis in living systems enzymes12 l.jpg

Catalysis in Living Systems: Enzymes

  • Efficacy of enzymes

    • “Hill”/transition state is the key

  • Mechanism

    • Lower energy of activation (EA) needed to surmount the “hill)

    • Selectivity/specificity (lock and key analogy)

      • Active site of protein due to 3-D conformation

    • Regeneration

  • Conclusion

    • Absence of enzymes: minutes to hours for reaction

    • Presence of enzymes: 1,000 times per second


Catalysis in living systems enzymes13 l.jpg

Catalysis in Living Systems: Enzymes

Transition State

EA

Free Energy %G

A-B

C-D

%G

A-D

B-C


Enzymes modification of the rate of reaction l.jpg

Enzymes: Modification of the Rate of Reaction

  • Factors controlling efficacy of enzymes

    • Concentration of enzyme

    • Concentration of reactants

    • Factors affecting proteins (enzymes)

      • Temperature (compare humans versus thermophiles in hot springs)

      • pH

      • Mechanism (3-D conformation of proteins and lock & key analogy)

    • Inhibitors


Evolutionary perspective of enzymes l.jpg

Evolutionary Perspective of Enzymes

  • Evolutionary advantage of enzymes

    • Specific acceleration of reactions

    • Fitness value: positive

    • Information broker: coded in the DNA

      • Mutation

      • Reproduction

  • How did enzymes come to be?


Ribozymes l.jpg

Ribozymes

  • What are ribozymes in current biochemistry?

    • NOT ribosomes

    • mRNA (small fragments)

    • Functions

      • Synthesis of RNA, membranes, amino acids, ribosomes

    • Properties

      • Catalytic behavior (enhance rates ~20 times)

      • Genetically programmed

      • Naturally occurring (60-90 bases)


Ribozymes continued l.jpg

Ribozymes (continued)

  • Laboratory studies of ribozymes

    • Creation of RNA fragments at random with existence of enzyme-like properties

    • Variety of enzyme-like properties

      • Cleavage of DNA

      • Cleave of DNA-RNA hybrids

      • Linking together fragments of DNA

      • Linking together fragments of RNA

      • Transformation of polypeptides to proteins

      • Self-replication (2001)


Summary of ribozymes l.jpg

Summary of Ribozymes

  • mRNA fragments

  • 3-D conformation like proteins (e.g., fold)

  • Functional ribozymes created at random in test tube

  • Exhibit catalytic behavior

  • Self replicate

  • Play a prominent/key role in any scenario for understanding the evolution of life at the biochemical and molecular level


Rna world l.jpg

RNA World


Beginnings of life on earth20 l.jpg

Beginnings of Life on Earth

  • Organic chemistry*

  • Transition from chemistry to biology

  • Panspermia

  • The evolution of sophisticated features of metabolism and information brokers

  • Conclusions

    _________

    * Enzymes first


Chemical beginnings the chemistry of carbon polymers l.jpg

Chemical Beginnings: The Chemistry of Carbon Polymers


Urey miller experiment l.jpg

Urey-Miller Experiment


Significance of and sequel to urey miller experiment l.jpg

Significance of and Sequel to Urey Miller Experiment

  • Multiple variations of the study (e.g., atmosphere)

    • 20+ amino acids, sugars, bases for DNA and RNA, ATP, etc.

  • Significance: scenario for the abiotic formation of key carbon polymers (macromolecules)

  • Probable environments

    • Deep sea vents

    • Tidal pools (role of repeated evaporation and concentration – “evapoconcentration”; asteroid bombardment)

  • Chemical events leading to an “RNA World”


Panspermia l.jpg

Panspermia


Beginnings of life on earth25 l.jpg

Beginnings of Life on Earth

  • Organic chemistry*

  • Transition from chemistry to biology

  • Panspermia

  • The evolution of sophisticated features of metabolism and information brokers

  • Conclusions

    _________

    * Enzymes first


Functional beginnings of life transition from chemistry to biology l.jpg

Functional Beginnings of Life: Transition from Chemistry to Biology

  • Ribozymes

    • Enzyme activity

    • Self replicating

  • Generation of biomacromolecules (C polymers; e.g., sugars, nucleotides, ATP)

    • via abiotic processes on Earth (Urey-Miller)

    • via Panspermia

    • via biotic processes (e.g., ribozymes)

  • Role of mutations, natural selection and environment: incremental changes in biomacromolecules that are inherited via RNA and DNA)


Functional beginnings of life transition from chemistry to biology27 l.jpg

Functional Beginnings of Life: Transition from Chemistry to Biology

Glycolysis/Fermentation

6 Carbon Sugar/ Glucose

ATP (2)

3 Carbon Sugar/ Pyruvate

CO2

2 Carbon Sugar/ Acetyl Coenzyme A


Functional beginnings of life transition from chemistry to biology28 l.jpg

Functional Beginnings of Life: Transition from Chemistry to Biology

  • Evolution of Photosynthesis

    CO2 + H2O + Light = CH2O + O2

  • Key processes

    • Absorption of light (pigments)

    • Conversion of light energy into chemical energy (ATP)

    • Synthesis of simple carbon compounds for storage of energy

  • Purple bacteria and Cyanobacteria

    • Primitive forms (~3.5 BYA)


Origin and evolution of life on earth week 529 l.jpg

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5)

  • Searching for the origin

  • Functional beginnings of life

    • Focus on enzymes (lab)

    • From chemistry to biology at the molecular level

  • Prokaryotes and oxygen

  • Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity

  • Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change

  • Evolutions of humans (what a bore!)

  • Conclusions


Prokaryotes and oxygen l.jpg

Prokaryotes and Oxygen

% of Present

4.8 4 3 2 1 0.7 0.1 0

Billions of Years Before Present


Functional beginnings of life transition from chemistry to biology31 l.jpg

Functional Beginnings of Life: Transition from Chemistry to Biology

Glycolysis to Respiration

2 Carbon

Glycolysis/

Fermentation

4 Carbon

6 Carbon

Aerobic

Metabolism (TCA)

ATP

5 Carbon

ATP


Prokaryotes and oxygen32 l.jpg

Prokaryotes and Oxygen

  • Evolution of Photosynthesis

    CO2 + H2O + Energy = CH2O + O2

  • Evolution of respiration

    CH2O + O2 = CO2 + H2O + Energy

  • Possibility that respiration is simply the reverse of photosynthesis

  • Oxygen crisis and the oxygen stimulation to evolution


Origin and evolution of life on earth week 533 l.jpg

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5)

  • Searching for the origin

  • Functional beginnings of life

    • Focus on enzymes (lab)

    • From chemistry to biology at the molecular level

  • Prokaryotes and oxygen

  • Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity

  • Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change

  • Evolutions of humans (what a bore!)

  • Conclusions


Eukaryotes and an explosion of diversity l.jpg

Eukaryotes and an Explosion of Diversity

  • Incremental changes in evolution: role of oxygen and diversification of organisms (explain ATP fitness)

  • Quantum changes in evolution

    • Symbiosis

    • Lynn Margulis theory: eukaryotes are derived from prokaryotes

    • Compartmentalization and organelles

    • Bacterial origins of chloroplast and mitochondria


Mass extinctions asteroids and climate change l.jpg

Mass Extinctions, Asteroids and Climate Change

  • Mass extinctions

    • Dramatic declines in a variety of species, families and phyla (>25%)

    • Timing of decline is concurrent

    • Rate of decline is precipitous (geological sense)

    • Example of catastrophism

  • Best example

    • Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (65 M years ago)

    • K-T boundary and Alvarez theory of catastrophism


Mass extinctions asteroids and climate change k t boundary l.jpg

Mass Extinctions, Asteroids and Climate Change: K-T Boundary

  • Observations

    • Iridium deposits in distinct layers: suggestion of an asteroid (10-15 Km)

    • Other trace elements (characteristics of asteroids)

    • Shocked quartz

    • Soot deposits

  • Conclusive Evidence

    • Impact crater 200 km off Yucatan Peninsula (Chicxulub Crater)


Mass extinctions asteroids and climate change other examples l.jpg

Mass Extinctions, Asteroids and Climate Change: Other examples

  • Other mass extinctions

    • Five major extinctions over last 600 M years

  • Evidence for gradualism

    • First principles: evolution

    • Pattern in the data

      • Recovery response

      • Overall increment in number of families over geological time

  • Conclusions: Catastrophism coupled with gradualism


Origin and evolution of life on earth week 538 l.jpg

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth (Week 5)

  • Searching for the origin

  • Functional beginnings of life

    • Focus on enzymes (lab)

    • From chemistry to biology at the molecular level

  • Prokaryotes and oxygen

  • Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity

  • Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change

  • Evolutions of humans (what a bore!)

  • Conclusions


Origin and evolution of life on earth conclusions l.jpg

Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth: Conclusions

  • Plausible scenario for the early origin of life on Earth (abiotic and biotic)

  • Role of mutation and evolution in origin of increasingly more complex forms of metabolism

  • Role of major evolutionary and climatological events in “pulses” of diversification in biota


  • Login