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Monotremata - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Class Mammalia. External Structure & Locomotion. 1. Skin- important for A. protection from injury B. invasion of bacteria C. UV rays D. temperature regulation E. Sensory perception F. Excretion G. Water regulation. 2. Hair- keratinized strands of dead cells

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Monotremata' - RoyLauris


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External Structure & Locomotion

1. Skin- important for

A. protection from injury

B. invasion of bacteria

C. UV rays

D. temperature regulation

E. Sensory perception

F. Excretion

G. Water regulation

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2. Hair- keratinized strands of dead cells

A. some it is reduced to a few bristles

B. 2 kinds make up the pelage or fur coat 1. Guard hair- long outer hairs for protection & coloration

2. Underhair- dense, soft, shorter hairs for insulation

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C. Stops growing when it reaches a certain length

D . Molting

1. all at once(most mammals)

2. gradually throughout life(humans)

E. Important for: 1. Camouflage 2. Sensory perception 3. Thermal regulation

F. Hair color determined by the amount of a pigment called melanin in the hair shaft

monotremata
Monotremata
  • - egg laying mammals
  • - Echidna (spiny anteater)
  • Duck-billed Platypus
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3. Claws- used for locomotion, offensive & defensive behavior

A. can be modified into: 1. Claws- for digging

2. Nails- for grasping (arboreal animals-primates)

3. Hooves- reduced digits for walking on hard ground, rocks

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4. Glands-variety of functions:

A. sebaceous(oil) glands- lubricates & waterproofs the skin

B. Sudoriferous(sweat) gland- cools skin; releases excess salt, urea, & water

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C. Scent/musk glands- on face, feet, anus to show territoriality, sex, recognition

D. Mammary glands- secrete milk containing nutrients for young

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Bones & Teeth

  • Secondary palate- separates the nasal & oral pathways so can breathe while chewing
  • 2. Are heterodonts- teeth are specialized for different function.
  • ( reptiles are homodonts-all teeth are the same shape)
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3. Two sets of teeth:

  • Deciduous teeth-lost very early; milk teeth
  • Permanent teeth- last set of teeth

Permanent teeth

Deciduous teeth

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4. Types of teeth:

A. incisors- two front teeth; chisellike & used for gnawing or nipping

B. Canines- long, stout, &

conical; catching,

killing, & tearing prey

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5.

A. Herbivores (deer, horses, rodents) have reduced canines, more prominent molars for grinding plant food

B. Carnivores(dogs, cats, coyotes) have enlarged canines for tearing, less dominant molars

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6. Three types of horns:

  • True horns- bone arises from skull; not branched; not shed; seen in both sexes(sheep & cattle)
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B. Antlers- covered with velvet that falls off before the breeding season; antlers are lost after the breeding season & a few months later regrow, more elaborate than before

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Nutrition & the Digestive System

  • Mammals digestive systems are specialized(like teeth) for a variety of needs
  • Ruminants- most herbivores
    • Eat plant material containing cellulose that is hard to digest
    • Have very large digestive tracts that aid in digestion of cellulose. (this is why these animals have very large bellies)
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C. Most have 4 stomach chambers filled with special bacteria that help break cellulose down

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D. Will regurgitate or “chew cud” to continue breaking down cellulose

E. Some will eat their fecal pellets (rabbits, elephants) to get more nutrients from the plants they eat

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Gas Exchange

  • Have larger, more vascular lungs
  • Have a diaphragm- the muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities- to help in drawing in large amounts of air at a time
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Circulation

  • Have a four chambered heart
  • Keeps oxygenated blood & deoxygenated blood separate
slide23

Temperature Regulation

  • Endotherms
  • Maintain warmth- A. hair B. fat deposits-blubber
  • Cool off- A. panting B. sweat glands
  • C. large ears to
  • dissipate heat(rabbits & elephants) D. nocturnal

Cutting blubber cubes from seal to test for contamination (bioaccumulation)

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Which is not a gland associated with mammals?
    • Sebaceous c. Sudoriferous
    • Mammary d. Jacobson’s
  • Which characteristic do mammals and birds share?

a. Feathers b. Dry scaly skin c. endotherms

  • Hair is important for
    • Temperature regulation c. As a sensory organ
    • Camouflage d. All of these
  • A ruminant
    • Has long digestive tract b. Is a carnivore

c. Lacks hair

  • By looking at the teeth, what type of animal is this?

a. Carnivore

b. Herbivore

c. omnivore

journal
JOURNAL
  • You have discovered an unknown organism. What are three characteristics that would help you identify it as a mammal?
  • GET OUT YOUR MAMMAL NOTES
  • PLEASE TURN IN:
    • Signed grade printout
    • Solving a Mammal Mystery WKST
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Behavior

  • Migration- move long distances to avoid drought or temperature extremes
  • Winter sleep- animals retreat to burrows where they become less active but relatively alert & easily aroused(bears, raccoons)
  • Hibernation-respiration, heart rate, metabolism all slow down considerably. Will store large amounts of fat to rely on in winter. ( moles, shrews, rodents, bats)
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4. Pheromones- used to:

    • Recognize members of same species
    • Attract mate
    • Establish territories
    • Recognize parents
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6. Vocalizations & tactile communications important to social animals like primates that groom each other

7. Territoriality- defend/protect certain area

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Nervous & Sensory System

  • Larger brains compared to body size
  • Good sense of touch
  • Olfaction very important
  • Well developed sense of hearing
  • Vision is also important. Color vision not as well developed in most( scientists believe because ancestor were nocturnal). It is well developed in primates, squirrels and a few others
slide31

Excretion

  • kidney
  • Produce urea- liquid urine with some water- as a waste product.
  • Can afford to lose some water because of our better abilities to maintain homeostasis
slide32

Reproduction & Development

  • Females go through an estrus cycle where they are receptive to males and release eggs for fertilization
  • Reproduction usually occurs when climate is right and resources are available
  • Three types of estrus: A. monestrus- only one estrus/year- pandas, bears, sea lions
      • B. Diestrus- 2 estrus/ year- domestic dogs
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C. polyestrus- many estrus/year- humans

4. Modes of development:

A. monotremes- lay eggs- platypus & echidna

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B. marsupials- short gestation inside mother(8-40 days); when born must crawl to marsupium (pouch) to complete development. Will attach to nipple in pouch for additional 60-270 days

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C. Eutherian mammals- longer gestation periods (20-19 months) Offspring are nourished by the placenta.

***The longer the gestation period, the longer the offspring can take to develop, the more complex structures and/or functions will be.

slide36

Orders of Mammals

  • Order Insectivora- small, primitive mammals; 3rd largest order.
  • Ex; hedgehogs, moles, shrew
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2. Order Chiroptera- bones of arms & hands are elongate & slender; have flight membranes; most insectivores, some fruit eater, blood or fish feeders

Ex- bats

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3. Order Primates- increased agility in arboreal(tree-dwelling) habitats; omnivores, unspecialized teeth, grasping digits, enlarged eyes & cerebral hemispheres

Ex; lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, great apes, humans

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4. Order Edentata- incisors & canines absent; hind foot is four toes, forefoot with 2/3 prominent toes with large claws; limbs for climbing or digging

Ex- anteaters, sloths, armadillos

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5. Order Lagomorpha- two pairs of upper incisors, one pair of lower incisors. Incisors are always growing & worn down by feeding on vegetation.

Ex- rabbits

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6. Order Rodentia- largest mammals order; upper & lower jaws have single pair of always growing incisors.

Ex- squirrels, chipmunks, rats, mice, beavers, porcupines

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7. Order Cetacea- streamlined, nearly hairless & insulated by blubber; forelimbs modified into flippers, hindlimbs reduced; nostrils on top of head

Ex- toothed whale, porpoises, baleen whales

slide43

8. Order Carnivora- predatory mammals; well developed sense of smell; canines are well developed

Ex- dogs, cats, bears, raccoons, sea lions, seals, walruses, otters

slide44
9. Order Proboscidea- long, muscular trunk with 1-2 finger like projections Ex- African 7 Indian elephants
slide45

10. Order Sirenia- large, aquatic herbivores; nearly hairless with thick, wrinkled skin; forelimb is flipperlike & hindlimb is vestigial Ex- manatee, dugong

slide46

11. Order Perissodactyla- skull usually elongate; large molars/premolars, odd toed ungulates (hoofed animals); primarily grazers. Ex- horses, rhinoceroses, zebras, tapirs

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12. Order Artiodactyla- even toes hoofed animals; grazing animals Ex- pigs, hippopotamuses, camels, deer, sheep, giraffe, cattle
monotremata48
Monotremata
  • -Egg laying mammals
  • - Echidna (Spiny Anteater)
  • - Duckbilled Platypus
marsupialia
Marsupialia
  • - pouched mammals
  • -
demoptera
Demoptera
  • Flying Lemurs
pinnipedia
Pinnipedia
  • Seals & Walruses
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