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Legislation and Technical Aspects of Regulations on Waste Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany. Thomas Brasser, GRS. Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009. Who is GRS (‚Plant & Reactor Safety Ltd.‘).

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Legislation and technical aspects of regulations on waste containing mercury in europe and germany l.jpg

Legislation and Technical Aspects of Regulations on Waste Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Thomas Brasser, GRS

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009


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Who is GRS (‚Plant & Reactor Safety Ltd.‘) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Non-profit, independent expert and research organisation

  • Assess and improve safety of technical facilities

  • Focus on nuclear safety and waste management

  • Customers: Ministries and authorities, European Commission

  • Technical support of BMU conc. safety of chemicals, e.g. Hg

  • About 400 employees, offices in several European countries

  • International co-operations

  • ISO 9001:2000 certified

[For details see: http://www.grs.de/module/layout_upload/grse.pdf]

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Storage Obligation for Metallic Mercury (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • 22 October 2008: Adoption of Regulation (EC) No 1102/2008 on banning of exports of metallic mercury*) and safe storage by EU legislator

  • One of the key elements for implementation of EU mercury strategy adopted in 2005, as well as Council Conclusions of June 2005 and December 2008 on the need for international action on mercury

  • Basic aim of regulation to prevent surplus mercury**) from re-entering global market

*) as well as certain mercury compounds and mixtures

**) mainly resulting from closure of mercury-cell facilities in the chlor-alkali industry

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Storage Obligation for Metallic Mercury (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Amount at stake estimated at up to 13,000 tonnes of metallic mercury

  • Remaining (and declining) EU demand for mercury at legal uses up to 580 tonnes/year

  • Export ban complemented by storage obligation

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Storage Obligation for Metallic Mercury (3) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Storage obligation covers metallic mercury from 4 major sources:- no longer used in chlor-alkali industry- gained from cleaning of natural gas- gained from non-ferrous mining and smelting operations- extracted from cinnabar ore in the EU

  • Other, smaller sources deliberately not covered to maintain supply for remaining legal uses, e.g.- dental amalgam- some types of batteries- energy saving light bulbs- electronic equipment

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Storage Obligation for Metallic Mercury (4) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Regulation allows only few storage options:

  • Temporary or permanently in salt mines*) or in deep underground hard rock formations**)

  • Temporary only in above-ground facilities***) („temporary“ not defined, but normally more than 1 year)

  • Purpose of allowing temporary storage is not to jeopardize efforts to find alternative solutions to storage, e.g. solidification

*) adapted for the disposal of metallic mercury

**) providing a level of safety and confinement equivalent to that of salt mines

***) dedicated to and equipped for the temporary storage of metallic mercury

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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General EU Rules for Waste Storage (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill*) of waste

  • Key piece of EU legislation in the field of waste disposal

  • Stringent operational and technical requirements to prevent possible negative effects on the environment

  • Not to be operated without appropriate permit by competent authority

*)notion „landfill“ = very broad, covers sites for waste disposal onto or into land

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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General EU Rules for Waste Storage (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste (cont.)

  • Application for permit must contain all relevant information- type and quantity of waste- capacity of the site- geological and hydrogeological characteristics- proposed measures for pollution control- monitoring and control plan- plan for closure and after-care of the site- financial security provided by applicant- environmental impact assessment (acc. to local conditions)

  • Permit only to be granted if authority is satisfied with all elements

  • Liquid waste not to be accepted in a landfill, but now derogation for metallic mercury

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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General EU Rules for Waste Storage (3) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

2003/33/EC: Council Decision of 19 December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills

  • Complement and particularizing of the landfill directive by detailed technical requirements

  • Criteria for waste acceptable at landfills dedicated to hazardous waste*)

  • Criteria for underground storage, including specific considerations for salt mines

  • Long-term safety assessment required for underground storage

  • All provisions of landfill directive as well as of criteria and procedures apply to a storage facility of metallic mercury

*)Metallic mercury as well as waste containing mercury is classified as hazardous waste under EU legislation

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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EU Criteria for Underground Disposal (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Council Decision 2003/33/EC establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills

  • Criteria for underground storage

  • A site-specific safety assessment as defined in Annex A

  • Importance of geological barrier

  • Ultimate objective of underground storage = Isolation of wastes from the biosphere

  • Wastes + geological barrier + cavities + engineered structures + technical aspects must fulfill the corresponding requirements

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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EU Criteria for Underground Disposal (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Council Decision 2003/33/EC establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills

  • The site-specific assessment of risk requires the identification of:

    • The hazard (deposited wastes)

    • The receptors (biosphere and possibly groundwater)

    • The pathways by which substances from the wastes may reach the biosphere

    • The assessment of impact of substances that may reach the biosphere

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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EU Criteria for Underground Disposal (3) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Council Decision 2003/33/EC establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills

  • An integrated performance assessment analysis, including:

    • Geological assessment

    • Geomechanical assessment

    • Hydrogeological assessment

    • Geochemical assessment

    • Biosphere impact assessment

    • Assessment of the operational phase

    • Long-term assessment

    • Assessment of the impact of all the surface facilities at the site

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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EU Legislation on Mercury Storage Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Export Ban with Storage Obligation (2008)

refers to

affects on

Landfill Directive (1999)

Criteria & Procedures (2003)

giving details in

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Further Legislative Steps (EU) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Development of specific criteria, tailor made to the characteristics of metallic mercury

  • Some of existing criteria are likely to be unsuitable for a liquid substance like metallic mercury

  • Development of specific provisions for the containment of the substance

  • European Commission is about to launch a study that will deliver basic elements of such criteria

  • Study will also look into state-of-the-art of solidification or other means of pre-treatment of metallic mercury before storage

  • Additional criteria scheduled to be adopted in 2010 by means of a Commission decision ( available in March 2011, storage obligation)

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Why Salt Rock ? Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Unique rock properties,esp. plastic behaviour

Former drift in a salt mine

Former drift in a salt mine

Enables complete inclusionof waste disposed off

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Concept of Underground Disposal in Salt Rock Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

a. Layered Salt

Disposal-Site

b. Salt Dome

Disposal-Site

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Host Rock Properties - Comparison Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Host-Rock Specific Aspects Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Rock salt:Complete and permanent isolation of waste from biosphere by total inclusion in host rock; host rock = essential barrier

  • Plastic-clayey sediments: Barrier effect by geosphere and technical resp. geotechnical measures

  • Crytalline rocks / consolidated sediments (fractured): System of technical barriers essential for enclosure of waste

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Waste Isolation Barrier System (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Waste content

Waste form

Canister

Backfill

Sealing

Host rock

Technical Barriers

Geological Barriers

Overburden

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Waste Isolation Barrier System (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Overburden

Shaft sealing

Drift sealing

Borehole sealing

Host rock

Waste & Canister

Backfill

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Underground Disposal System & Scenario Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Biosphere

Well

Overburden

Host rock

Repository

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Underground Disposal Sites Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Experiences and Practice in Germany

Experiences since 1972 (Herfa-Neurode in operation)

Host rock = rock salt

Exclusive usage of still existing or abandoned mines

Broad spectrum of hazardous wastes

Operated commercially (‚polluter pays‘)

Operated cost covering and profitable

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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German Regulations on Underground Disposal Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Technical Instructions on Waste (1991)

    • Underground disposal of hazardous waste, site specific proof of long-term safety is mandatory, waste specific requirements and exclusion criteria

  • Landfill Ordinance – DepV (2002)

    • Instructions on the maintenance of long-term safety records within the context of site-related safety assessments for mines in salt rock (currently under revision)

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Important Questions Concerning Mercury Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Scientific Knowledge on Mercury

  • What is the behavior of metallic Mercury in contact with air and brines ?

  • How much is the solubility of metallic Mercury influenced by impurities ?

  • Does the conversion of metallic Mercury in Hg-sulfides hold advantages ?

  •  significant in case of waste not isolated totally

Demand of Regulations

  • Which of the existing criteria are likely to be unsuitable for liquid Hg ?

  • Which specific provisions for the containment are necessary and how does it effect the system ?

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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ANNEX Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Supplementing informations

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Preamble to 1102/2008 (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Regulation (EC) No 1102/2008 on banning of exports and safe storage of metallic mercury

  • Mercury releases are recognized as a global threat

  • Necessity to reduce the risk of exposure to mercury for humans and the environment

  • The export of metallic mercury, … from the Community should be banned in order to significantly reduce the global mercury supply

  • The safe storage within the Community of this mercury should be ensured

  • The safety assessment required for underground storage (Decision 2003/33/EC) should be complemented by specific requirements and should also be made applicable to non-underground storage

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Preamble to 1102/2008 (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Regulation (EC) No 1102/2008 on banning of exports and safe storage of metallic mercury

  • The storage conditions in a salt mine or in deep underground, hard rock formations, …, should notably meet the principles of protection of groundwater against mercury, prevention of vapor emissions of mercury, impermeability to gas and liquids of the surroundings and - in case of permanent storage - of firmly encapsulating the wastes at the end of the mines' deformation process

  • The above-ground storage conditions should notably meet the principles of reversibility of storage, protection of mercury against meteoric water, impermeability towards soils and prevention of vapor emissions of mercury

  • The above-ground storage of metallic mercury should be considered as a temporary solution

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Actual EU Regulation on Mercury (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Regulation (EC) No 1102/2008 on banning of exports and safe storage of metallic mercury

  • (Art.1-1) Export of metallic mercury prohibited from 15 March 2011

  • (Art.1-3) Mixing of metallic mercury prohibited from 15 March 2011

  • (Art.2) Metallic mercury (no longer used / gained from operations)considered as wasteand tobedisposedoffrom 15 March 2011

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Actual EU Regulation on Mercury (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Regulation (EC) No 1102/2008 on banning of exports and safe storage of metallic mercury

  • (Art.3) Metallic mercury (as waste) to be stored in salt minesor in deep underground, hard rockformations (providing equivalent level of safety)

  • (Art.8) By 1 January 2010 examination of - Need for extending the export ban to other mercury compounds - Need for import ban - Consideration of research on safe disposal options

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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German Ordinance on Landfills (1) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Annex 2: Instructions on the maintenance of long-term safety recordsGeneral:

  • Objective = complete and permanent sealing of waste from biosphere

  • No impairment of the biosphere – proof by long-term safety record

  • Salt rock in adequate spread and thickness = barrier rock

  • Further geological barriers = additional protection (not compulsory)

  • Penetrations of geological barrier (e.g. shafts) must be sealed (acc. to latest state of the art)

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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German Ordinance on Landfills (2) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Annex 2: Instructions on the maintenance of long-term safety recordsLong-term safety:

  • Based on - Safety Concept- Record of Geotechnical Stability - Safety Record for the Operational Phase

  • Comprises entire system: ‚Waste - Underground Mine - Rock Body‘

  • Due regard for scheduled and non-scheduled incidents (scenarios)

  • Proof of complete enclosure dispenses from model calculations on pollutant disseminations in the overburden

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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German Ordinance on Landfills (3) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Annex 2: Instructions on the maintenance of long-term safety recordsRequired Basic Informations:

  • Geological conditions

  • Informations about the drifts

  • Hydrogeological conditions

  • Emplacement of waste

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Host Rock Properties - Comparison (Detail) Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

Source: BGR

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Conclusions on Mercury Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Metallic Hg is stable under the conditions of repositories in salt formations

  • The high vapor pressure of metallic Hg poses high demands on the handling and ventilation

  • Contact with brines: Solubility of Hg(0) is low, but higher Hg concentrations must be expected due to impurities with higher solubilities

  • Conversion into Hg-sulfides is feasible. The benefit is dependant on the form and mass of impurities

  • Specific waste acceptance criteria need to be determined

  • Containment isimportant

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Citations (1) - EU Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Regulation (EC) No 1102/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on the banning of exports of metallic mercury and certain mercury compounds and mixtures and the safe storage of metallic mercury - http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:304:0075:0079:EN:PDF

  • Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste - http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31999L0031&model=guichett

  • 2003/33/EC: Council Decision of 19 December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC - http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:011:0027:0049:EN:PDF

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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Citations (2) - DE Containing Mercury in Europe and Germany

  • Technical Instructions on Waste (TA Abfall) - http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/taabfall.pdf (in German)

  • Act for Promoting Closed Substance Cycle Waste Management and Ensuring Environmentally Compatible Waste Disposal - http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/promoting.pdf

  • Ordinance on Landfills and Long-Term Storage Facilities (Landfill Ordinance – DepV) - Annex 2: Instructions on the maintenance of long-term safety records within the context of site-related safety assessments for mines in salt rock - http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/deponievo_engl.pdf

  • Contact:Dr. Thomas BrasserGesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH Theodor-Heuss-Strasse 438122 Braunschweig, GermanyPhone: +49-531-8012-238, Fax: +49-531-8012-10238, Email: [email protected]

Latin America Mercury Storage Project Inception Workshop - Montevideo, Uruguay, April 22-23, 2009

Th. Brasser, GRS


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