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Language Resources for Maltese. Mike Rosner Dept. Artificial Intelligence University of Malta [email protected] Malta. Team. Mike Rosner, Dept AI, UoM Ray Fabri, Inst. Linguistics, UoM Duncan Attard, RA, Dept AI, UoM Albert Gatt, Aberdeen and UoM …. and others . Outline.

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Language resources for maltese l.jpg

Language Resources for Maltese

Mike RosnerDept. Artificial Intelligence

University of Malta

[email protected]

Language Resources for Maltese


Malta l.jpg
Malta

Language Resources for Maltese


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Team

  • Mike Rosner, Dept AI, UoM

  • Ray Fabri, Inst. Linguistics, UoM

  • Duncan Attard, RA, Dept AI, UoM

  • Albert Gatt, Aberdeen and UoM

    …. and others

Language Resources for Maltese


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Maltese Language

  • MLRS

    • Corpus

    • Lexicon

  • Conclusion

  • Demo

Language Resources for Maltese


Maltese language l.jpg
Maltese Language

  • National language of the Maltese Islands (along with English).

    • c.1M native speakers (Malta, Australia, Canada, UK)

  • Real language

  • Mixed Language

    • Arabic: kelb (dog)

    • Romance: karozza (car)

    • English: swiċċ; ners; owkej

  • Latin script + some special characters

    • ċ, ġ, ħ, ż, għ, ie

  • Vowels are written (unlike Arabic)

    • kiteb

Language Resources for Maltese


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Semitic Morphology

  • Root-and-template based

  • Root has 3 consonantse.g. "k t b"

  • Template is a pattern of consonants and vowels e.g. CVCVC

  • Vocalism = 2 vowels e.g. "i e"

  • Word formed by interdigitation

  • interdigitate(ktb, ie, CVCVC) → kiteb

Language Resources for Maltese


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Semitic Morphology

  • ħadem work (verb);

  • ħaddiem worker;

  • ħidma work (noun);

  • ħadem be worked (verb passive);

  • ħaddem caused to work.

Language Resources for Maltese


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Sound Plural

formed by suffixes:

(a) Romance

karozza/karozzi (car)

tappit/tappiti (carpet)

(b) Semitic

ikla/ikliet (food)

Broken Plural

change of stemdrop of vowel

qamar/qmura

tifel/tfal

ġdid/ġodda (new)

tappit/twapet (carpet)

Plural Formation

Language Resources for Maltese


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Morpho-Syntactic Features

  • Verb-less sentencesIl-karozza ġdid/the car is new

  • Construct state (inalienable possession)Id it-tifel/the boy's hand

  • Sun-lettersix-xemx/the sunit-tifel/the boy

Language Resources for Maltese


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Construct State

  • Id it-tifel fil-but

  • Id it-tifel fil-but

  • hand (def) the boy in the pocket

  • The boy's hand (is) in the pocket

Language Resources for Maltese


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Italian Borrowing

spjega explain (It. spiegare)

jispjega he explains

nispjegaw we explain

spjegat she explained

spjegajt I explained, etc.

English Borrowing

ixxuttja kick a football (Eng. shoot)

jixxuttja he kicks

nixxuttjaw we kick

ixxuttjat she kicked

ixxuttjajt I kicked, etc.

Verbs with Semitic Inflections

Language Resources for Maltese


Clitic pronouns l.jpg
Clitic Pronouns

  • bgħatthielux

  • bgħat − t − hie − lu − x

  • send past to her it not

    1SM

  • I didn't send it to her

Language Resources for Maltese


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Summary

  • Mixed language

  • Morphology and syntax more mixed together than in other European languages (typical of Semitic langs)

  • Empirical work needs to be carried out to establish correct morphosyntactic description.

  • Lack of systematic language resources

Language Resources for Maltese


Language resources l.jpg
Language Resources

  • Natural language processing systems and tools,

  • Linguistic research that yields new knowledge about the language itself, and

  • Language-related industries such as software localization, translation, publishing etc.

Language Resources for Maltese


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Maltese Language Resource Server (MLRS)

  • RTDI National Project

  • Main Deliverables:

    • Maltese National Corpus (Server)

    • Computational Lexicon (Server)

  • Subsidiary Deliverables - tools for access, creation and maintenance of resources

    • Tokeniser

    • Part of Speech Tagger

    • NP Chunker

Language Resources for Maltese


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Same Data, Different Services

Language Resources for Maltese


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Corpus

  • Representative

  • Accessible to

    • contributors

    • editors

    • other users

  • Multiple levels of annotation

  • Word extraction

Language Resources for Maltese


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2 Dimensional Corpus

Text Category

Language Resources for Maltese


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Levels of Annotation

Language Resources for Maltese


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c. 20 Text Categories

Language Resources for Maltese


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Corpus Website

Language Resources for Maltese


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Wordlist Management

  • User submits text, files or page URLs.

  • These resources are scanned and the words extracted from them and displayed.

  • User edits the resulting lists of extracted words manually.

  • User submits final version for incorporation into the wordlist database.

Language Resources for Maltese


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Current Corpus

  • 50M words at level 0, predominantly news, legal, government. Some fiction.

  • Submission requires a signed agreement from contributors.

  • Level 0

    • catalogue: visible to all

    • contents: only visible to submitter.

  • Level 1 and higher

    • catalogue and contents: visible to all

Language Resources for Maltese


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Morphosyntactic AnnotationLevel III

  • Tagset: a predetermined collection of tags for Maltese (Albert Gatt/Ray Fabri)

  • Brill Tagger (Brill 1996)

  • Training phase – hand tagging.

  • Each tag can be regarded as a set of attribute/value pairs

  • For example, the tag NCS stands for{Cat=noun, Type=common, Num=sing}

Language Resources for Maltese



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Lexicon - Aims

  • Broad coverage

  • Support for different kinds of lexical information

    • Syntactic (Part of Speech + other)

    • Phonetic Spelling

    • Translation (En)

  • Interaction with linguist over Internet

Language Resources for Maltese


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Lexicon Construction: Workflow

  • Extract wordlists from text (automatic)

  • Identify/correct headwords (semi-automatic)

    • Alignment techniques (Dalli 2001)

    • Automatic prefix/suffix recognition (Attard 2004)

  • For each headword, construct lexical entry (manual)

  • Led (Lexicon Editor)

Language Resources for Maltese


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Lexicon Editor

Language Resources for Maltese


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Object Description Language

  • OO language for handling dependencies between lexical fields.

  • Primarily affects linguist interface.

  • An ODL description contains the following parts in order:

    • Enumeration Declarations

    • Class Declarations

    • Rules (Optional)

    • Macro Definitions (Optional)

Language Resources for Maltese


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ODL Example

enum Number { Singular, Plural, Dual }

class NOUN

{

Cat = noun;

Type = common | proper;

Number = *; }

class PRONOUN: NOUN

{ Case = *; }

if (Number == Plural){ !Gender }

Language Resources for Maltese


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Current Status

  • Website (http://mlrs.cs.um.edu.mt)

    • User Classes (public; linguist; administrator)

  • Corpus

    • Web interface

    • Tools level0; level1; level 2

    • Collection approx 50MB @ level 0

  • Lexicon

    • Editor/Browser

    • ODL version 0

Language Resources for Maltese


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Future Work

  • Manual annotation:

    • POS annotation to train tagger

    • Migration of level 0 to level 1

  • Morphological component

    • Morphological analyser/synthesiser

    • Relationships between lexical entries

  • HPSG integration. Stefan Muller, Saarbruecken.

  • Compatibility/Integration with existing lexical resources (cf WordNet)

  • Language-enabled tools.

    • Spellchecker

    • IE

    • Translation

Language Resources for Maltese


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Inheritance and Morphology

j a s l u

{ pers=1, mamma=wasal, num=plur }

Language Resources for Maltese


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Conclusion

  • Cross-disciplinary (Ling/CLing/CS) project presents challenges.

  • Training of automatic tagger has been a bottleneck.

  • Stable funding/support required beyond life of project

Language Resources for Maltese


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Valletta in Winter

Language Resources for Maltese


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