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HACCP & Hygiene in honey production. Buenos Aires, Concepción del Uruguay, Mendoza October / November 2005. Content of the seminar 1. General requirements of hygiene in honey production 2. HACCP: A brief introduction 3. “Good beekeeping practice” 4. HACCP in honey processing

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HACCP & Hygiene in honey production

Buenos Aires, Concepción del Uruguay, Mendoza

October / November 2005

Honey - HACCP


Content of the seminar

1. General requirements of hygiene in honey production

2. HACCP: A brief introduction

3. “Good beekeeping practice”

4. HACCP in honey processing

5. Establishing self-checking mechanisms in honey production according to HACCP principles

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1.

General requirements of hygiene

in honey production

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1.

Hygiene in honey production is protection against

  • dirt and diseases

  • spoiled food

  • complaints

  • financial losses

Honey - HACCP


Hygiene in honey production is necessary because

  • legislations (EC Regulations 852/853/854)

  • consumer protection

  • product liability

  • prerequisite program for HACCP

    under the aspect of food safety (EC-Regulation 178/02)

    demand it.

1.

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European Community Legislation

  • Council Regulationslaw in every member state

  • EC Directivesshall be adopted in member statesno legal force until promulgated by national parliament

  • Horizontal legislationrefers to all food stuffs e.g. for contaminants, additives, labelling

    Regulation EEC 2377/90 drugs )Directive 96/23/EC (monitoring)Vertical legislationrefers to specific products e.g. Honey Directive 2001/110/EC

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EC Hygiene Regulations

852/2004 general food hygiene

853/2004 specific requirements for food of animal origin

854/2004 specific procedures for the official control of food of animal origin

replacing 16 different Directives

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What is new ?

  • primary production is included

  • all food producing companies must be registered

  • principle of equivalence for imported food from third countries

  • HACCP mandatory as well as documentation as self control

.

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852/04 (9)Community rules should not apply either to primary production for private domestic use, or to the domestic preparation, storage or handling of food for private domestic consumption. ..........

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HACCP for smaller enterprises852/04 Article 5The HACCP requirements .........They should provide sufficient flexibility to be applicable in all situations including small businesses. In particular it is necessary to recognize that in certain businesses it is not possible to identify critical control points and that in some cases a good hygienic practice can replace the monitoring of critical control points. ..........

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Basic Regulation Food Safety 178/02e.g.Consumer protectionTraceabilityRapid Alert System

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Prerequisite for HACCPCleaning and sanitationsPest controlSupplier approvalEmployee trainingPersonal hygieneWater controlMaintenanceProduct specifications Product storage control

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1.

Hygiene only works for teams, if everyone uses the same set of rules.

  • validity for everyone

  • regular reminder

  • standard information

  • reliable inspection

  • mutual confidence

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1.

Cleaning and sanitation applies to

  • the working area

  • the equipment and

  • the people coming into contact with or close to the product is

    ESSENTIAL!

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1.

Washing facilities must be available:

- Working rooms must be equipped with:

- wash-basin (warm and cold water)

- paper towels, liquid soap dispenser

- Toilets:

- with wash-basin

- separate toilet entrance with anteroom

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1.

Also necessary:

- Sufficient air ventilation to prevent condensed water and foreign odors

- Adequate temperatures

- Artificial lighting with splinter protection

 - Dressing-rooms with wardrobe for cleanworking clothes (separated from street clothes)

 - No pets

- Exclusion of any people suffering from infectious

diseases

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1.

Further prerequisites for working rooms and equipment:

Floors:

- must be cleaned regularly

- made of non-toxic materials

- water-proof and hydrophobic

 Ceilings:

- prevent condensed water

- no moulds

- no removable fragments (loose paint particles e.g.)

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1.

Windows:

-supplied with gauze or fine mesh (exclusion of pests and insects)

Doors:

- with plane, hydrophobic and easy-to-clean surface

Surfaces, tools and appliances, walls:

- made of plane, cleanable and non-toxic materials.

- desinfection possible

Further prerequisites..., contd.

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1.

Further prerequisites..., contd.

Equipment:

- free of corrosion

- containers made of food-safe, cleanable and smooth material

- can be disinfected easily

Suitable cleaning devices

- must be easy-to-clean

- corrosion-proof

- must be kept clean best using a dishwasher

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2.

HACCP: A brief introduction

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Definition of HACCP

2.

Hazard

Analysis

Critical

Control

Point system

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2.

  • HACCP is a preventive safety system that ensures the production of harmless foods

  • most powerful method to repel and eliminate possible hazards regarding foods

  • enables applying science-based controls

  • from raw material to finished products

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The hazards

2.

A biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of control.

  • Biological (e.g. bacteria, virus)

  • Chemical(e.g. drug residues, cleaning compounds, heavy metals, mycotoxins)

  • Physical (e.g. wood, metal, stones, glass, hair, jewelry, plastic)

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HACCP is not a stand-alone system. It works hand in hand with

2.

  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

  • Definite responsibility

  • Documentation

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Prerequisites to HACCP

2.

  • Good Processing Practices (GPP)

  • Good Hygiene Practices (GHP)

  • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

  • Appropriate QM systems like ISO series

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2.

HACCP

SOP

GPP

GHP

GMP

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2.

Theseven principles of HACCP

  • Realization of a hazard analysis

    2.Identifying and setting Critical Control Points (CCPs)

  • Setting Critical Limit(s) and standards

    4.Monitoring of each relevant CCP in honey production

    5.Establishing corrective actions

    6. Verification of the system

    7. Documentation procedures

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3. Good Beekeeping Practice

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Application of good beekeeping practice is required for

3.

  • working at the beehives

  • harvesting and transporting honey

  • extracting honey from supers

  • storing honey

  • bottling honey

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3.

Contaminants from beekeeping

Contamination

of honey

Beekeeping

- Acridicides for Varroa control

  • Antibiotics against diseases e.g.

    AFB, EFB

    - Pesticides for wax moth control

    - Repellents at honey harvest

    - Other contaminants

Environment

- Pesticides

- Heavy metals

- Bacteria

  • Genetically modified

    organism (GMO)

    - Radioactivity

Plants, Air, Water

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CONTAMINANT

SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION

CONTROL MEASURE

1. Antibiotics in honey

Control of bacterial diseases with antibiotics (AFB, EFB, Nosema)

2. Synthetic acaricides in bees Wax, propolis and honey

Varroa control with synthetic acaricides

3. Pesticides in honey and beeswax

Control of wax moth with pesticides; Chemical control of the Small Hive Beetle

Alternative control without the use of antibiotics

4. Repellants for honey harvest

Use of synthetic repellents at the honey harvest

5. Toxic metals or organic substances

container, drum

Alternative Varroa control

without synthetic acaricides

6. Wood protectants, Painting

Pesticides in wood protectants

Use of wood protectants containing no pesticides

Wax moth control by alternative measures. Alternative control of the SHB

Use of smoker with natural material, “mechanic systems”

Use material which do not diffuse contaminants into honey

Contaminants from beekeeping and control measures

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Contamination: Today major factor for quality of honeyIncorrect apicultural practiceincluding hygiene e.g. as prevention of diseasesinstead of using „medicine“

3.

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Example

Defect

Control

Measures:

1

Jars and lids before filling

Contamination dirt, foreign,l odour, remaining water Hazard of quick deterioration of the content!

SEM ! as residue of sealing compound lids Azodicarbonamide

Visual and sensory check

Another cleaning or destroying of the damaged jars/lids

replace with other material

2

Liquefying honey , heat treatment

D: Reduction of the enzyme activity; if HMF > 40 mg  Complaints accord. to honey directives

C: Temperature, time, quick cooling

Tempera-ture, time measuring

Use as industrial honey

3.

Selected examples for important sources for hazards corresponding to “good beekeepingpractice”

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Example

Defect

Control

Measures:

3

Straining honey foam

Visual control

Removal of remaining honey scum by other methods

4

Addition of nuts or dried fruits to cream honey

Visual control

Dispose of the nuts / dried fruits

In the scum there might be wax particles that possibly contain harmful residues or other contaminants

Contamination of nuts / dried fruits with mould or pests Honey product is deteriorated

Looking for mould, cocoons etc.

3.

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Example

Defect

Control

Measures

5

Cleaning pollen (blowing out, sorting by hand)

Visual control

Another cleaning

6

Insufficient drying of Pollen

storage

Deterioration possible (water content)

Storage temperature max. 6 °C (freezer: -18 °C)

Continuos tempera-ture control

Adjustment of temperature

Organic contamination, foreign substances (dust), impurities, etc.

Insect bodies or parts of them

3.

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Example

Defect

Control

Measures

7

Storage of Royal jelly

- cooled

- frozen

Quick deterioration possible

Storage temperature max. 4°C (freezer: -18 °C)

Continuos tempera-ture control

Adjustment of temperature; thawed pollen mustn’t be freeze again

3.

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4.HACCP in honey processing

- Realization of a hazard analysis - Identifying preventive measures - Identifying and setting critical control points (CCP) - Setting critical limits and standards - Monitoring of each relevant CCP in honey production - Establishing corrective actions - Documentation procedures

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HACCP Implementation

.

  • Must have Management Commitment

  • most Food Safety Failures are Management Failures

  • Must follow the 7 principles to develop HACCP at each Production Plant

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.

HACCP Plan Development

I. Assembling the HACCP team

Multidisciplinary

e.g. beekeepers, co-workers of the collecting stations, analysts, representatives of quality control, engineers

4-6 people

Team must be able to evaluate risks and make food safety judgements

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II. Describing the food and its distribution

4.

  • Types of raw material e.g. liquid honey, creamed honey, comb honey, bulk honey, wax, pollen, propolis

  • Intrinsic control factors (moisture, colour)

  • Process control factors (heating, drying)

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4.

  • Describing intended use and consumers

e.g. pharmaceutical industry, food industry, cosmetic industry

Consumer all groups of the population

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4.

IV. Developing a flow diagram

  • Including all process steps e.g. uncapping, extracting, straining, filtering, homogenising, stirring, packing, storage

  • Including all inputs e.g. raw material, package material, water, air

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V. On-site confirmation of the flow diagram

  • all steps of the operation

  • all times of production

  • modify flow diagram as necessary

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4.

VI. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis and consider any measures to control identified hazards.

  • likely occurrence of the hazards

  • expected severity of the hazards

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4.

Hazards in honey processing

Physical Hazards (P)

  • Insect fragments

  • Soil

  • Plant material

  • Packaging

  • Glass

  • Equipment

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4.

Chemical Hazards (C)

  • Pesticides and herbicides

  • Bee medicines, antibiotics

  • Bee repellents

  • Coating / varnish of drums

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4.

Biological Hazards (B)

  • Pathogens e.g. Clostridium botulinum

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4.

Hazards may occur as a result of:

  • an input (object, material)

  • the process itself

  • direct or indirect contamination from „other sources“

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Inputs & associated hazards

4.

Bee Hive material

Wax

Bee hive sites

Drums

Glass jars

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Hazards at different process steps

.

  • Removing the honey combs out off the hives

  • Holding in hot room

  • Uncapping

  • Extracting

  • Liquefying

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1.1

HAZARD: CONTAMINATION

Hive

a) Contamination by the environment: (agriculture, industry) by heavy metals, pesticides etc.

medium

Identification and contamination source place the hives to a another site

b) Bees are intoxicated by pesticides

small

Identification and contamination source and its avoidance

Form forevaluation of hazards and possibilities for control

(Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux,Schweizerisches Zentrum für Bienenforschung, 2004)

4.

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1.1

HAZARD: CONTAMINATION

IMPORTANCE

CONTROL MEASURES

Hive

  • Lack of order and hygiene, endangering quality of bee products

medium

Re-installment of order, cleanness and hygiene

Extraction Plant resp. room

b) Lack of order, cleanness and hygiene, bees present, foreign odour

great

Re-installment of order, cleanness and hygiene

c) Centrifuge, tanks are improper, rusty

great

Re-installment of order, cleanness and hygiene

d) Instrumentation and instruments are cleaned with waste water e.g. pond, river

great

Use drinking water

Form forevaluation of hazards and possibilities for control

(Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux,Schweizerisches Zentrum für Bienenforschung, 2004)

4.

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1.2

HAZARD: ADULTERATION,CONTAMINATION

Feeding of bees

a) Sugar syrup is mixed with honey

great

Correct choice of time andquantity of sugar feeding

b) Use of improper water when preparing sugar feed leads to transfer of contaminants into the hive.

great

Use of drinking water

1.3

HAZARD: CONTAMINATION

Bee diseas-es

Treatments of bees contrary to instructions resp. illegal treatment leads to intolerable residues in honey

great

Follow instructions of veterinary authorities

4.

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1.4

HAZARD: CONTAMINATION

Change and storage of combs

Combs are very dark, there are moths and bee excretions, dirt which might cause bee infections and honey contamination. Use of pesticides for wax moth control

great

Regular control of brood and honey combs. Optimise storage of combs. Use alternative control for wax moth control.

1.5

HAZARD: CONTAMINATION, ADULTERATION

Honey harvest

a) Water content of honey >20 %

small

Harvest honey with less than 20% w.cont.

Packing storage and labelling

b) In honey there are contaminats from wax, bees, dirt, extraneous substances and odours

medium

Re-installment of order, cleanness and hygiene

c) Improper conditions of honey storage leads to dcrese of honey quality

medium

Store honey at optimal conditions (room, recipients)

d) overheating of honey while packing leads to reaching of too much HMF

medium

Liquefy honey at the optimum temperature and time

4.

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4.

VII. Identifying preventive measures

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4.

Examples for preventive measures

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Theseven principles of HACCP, contd.

4.

Identifying and setting Critical Control

Points (CCPs)

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.

CCP =

A step where control can be applied and is essential to prevent, eliminate or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level

CP =

means any point, step or procedure in a specific food system at which biological, physical and chemical factors can be controlled

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4.

Critical control-points show whereprocesses have to be supervised

Creating a decision tree facilitates finding the CCPs

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The decision tree Questions

4.

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4.

Q1: Do control measure(s) exist?

Modify step, process or

product

Yes

No

Is control necessary here?

Yes

No

Not a CCP

Stop

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4.

Q2:Is the step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce

the likely occurance of a hazard to an acceptable level?

No

Yes

CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

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4.

Q3. Could the identified hazard increase to unacceptable levels?

No

Not a CCP

Stop

Yes

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4.

Q4. Will a subsequent step eliminate identified hazard(s) or reduce

likely occurrence to an acceptable level ?

Yes

No

Not a CCP

CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

Stop

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3. Setting Critical Limit(s) and standards

4.

Theseven principles of HACCP, contd.

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4.

Critical limit =

A criterion that separates

accceptability from unacceptability

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4.

A critical limit

- must relate to control measure

- must be observable / measurable (time,

temp., pH etc.)

- must be validated

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4.

Examples for critical limits:

  • For the application of e.g. antibiotics, bee-repellents, wood preservatives

  • Limits in honey for e.g. water content (fermentation), HMF, invertase, diastase, antibiotics, pesticides (regulated by law)

  • Contamination by cleaning agents

  • Adulteration e.g. by sugar cane, maize (C4-sugars)

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4.

Limits are a result of:

-Legislations /guidelines

- Directives

- Specifications within the own company

if limits exceeded: corrective action

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4.

Theseven principles of HACCP, contd.

  • Monitoring of each relevant CCP in honey production

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4.

Monitoring of each CCP means:

  • watch and check CCPs to ensure that instructions and corrective procedures are carried out right

  • Determing for each CCP:

    • Who?

    • When?

    • What?

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4.

Theseven principles of HACCP, contd.

5. Establishing corrective actions

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4.

Corrective actions depend on the faults, see examples next pages

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4.

Corrective actionshave to be introduced as soon as critical limits are exceeded so the CCPs will not get out of control

1st measure: influence products or processes

or

2nd measure:stop process anddispose products

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CCPs in the Honey Process

4.

I. The hive and the honey removal

II. Transportation of honey in supers

III. Uncapping

IV. Filtration

V. Storage

VI. Preparation to bottle & bottling

VII. Distribution & display

Honey - HACCP


I. The hive and the honey removal

4.

Inputs

  • Honey supers

  • Uncapping, sump, pump to tanks

    Final Output

  • Bulk honey

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Hazards

Physical: soil, wire, wood, varnish particles, rust etc.

Chemical:

- medicines: pest., antibiotics,

- plant toxins (e.g. pontic

honey, tutin)

- paints, preservatives

Biological:

- Bacterial spores e.g. Clostridium

Monitoring

Check:

- No contact with soil / vegetation

- Chemicals applied for suitability of use

- Regular inspections to detect vermin infestations

- Treatment

- Instructions for use

Reliable lab. test, reports

I. The hive and the honey removal

4.

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I. The hive and the honey removal

4.

Control and corrective action

  • Dispose off honey

  • Use as winter feed (if recognized as safe)

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Hazard:

Physical and chemical contamination from:

- Transportation

- Animals

- Rain water

Monitoring:

Inspect vehicles

- Clean and free from petrol, oil, soil, plant & animal material

- Cover super with e.g. polythene sheet

II. Transportation of honey supers

4.

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II. Transportation of honey supers

4.

Control and Corrective Action:

  • Dispose off honey

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Hazard

Contamination from

- Equipment (not stainless steel parts)

- room

- people

Monitoring

Inspect all equipment

Clean daily resp. regularly

Provide suitable clothing

III. Uncapping and extraction

4.

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III. Uncapping and extraction

4.

Control and Corrective Action:

  • Complete all checks before processing start

  • Documentation !!

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Hazard

wax with residues

foreign matter

Monitoring

Check filters before and after use for damages

IV. Filtration

4.

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IV. Filtration

4.

Control and Corrective Action:

  • Re-filter with good filter if found damaged after use

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Hazard

Contamination from

- container

- surroundings

- pests

high HMF due to high temperatures

Moisture increase on surface

Monitoring

Check containers for food storage suitability

Prevent moisture absorption

Use suitable lids

Maintain temp. below 40°C

V. Storage

4.

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V. Storage

4.

Control and Corrective Action:

  • Make sure conditions have been met before bottling

  • Organoleptic test

  • measuring HMF, moisture

    Use as industrial honey if the above have failed

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Hazards

HMF increase

Crystallisation (liquid honey)

Foreign matter due to contamination from:

- environment

- glass breakage

Monitoring

Monitor temp. under 50°C

Check area and surroundings

Check no. of glass/plastic before & after bottling for breakage

VI. Preparation to Bottle & Bottling

4.

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VI. Preparation to Bottle & Bottling

4.

Control and Corrective Action:

  • Downgrade honey if temp. exceeded 50°c

  • Do not bottle if area is not clean

  • Dispose honey exposed to broken glass

  • Re-check unfilled glass jars

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Hazards

Moisture absorption

due to:

- damaged seals

- poor handling

- poor packaging

HMF

Crystallisation (liquid honey)

Monitoring

Suitable shipping containers

Temperature ?

VII. Distribution & Display

4.

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VII. Distribution & Display

4.

Control and Corrective Action:

  • Remove damaged product

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4.

Theseven principles of HACCP, contd.

  • Verification of the system

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4.

Establishing verification procedures

  • Procedure to ensure that HACCP is performed correctly and that it is effective

    • Is the system suited?

    • Are the procedures specified (e.g. monitoring) and the corrective actions applied correctly?

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4.

Verifications can be:

  • Verification of HACCP-inspections and the respective data

  • Verification of deviations

  • Audits

  • Validation of determined limits and

    tolerances, e.g. participation in ring trials

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4.

Theseven principles of HACCP, contd.

7. Documentation procedures

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4.

Documentation

In terms of a traceable and effective self-control, a minimum of documentation is recommended

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Documentation, contd.

4.

Recommended documentation regarding:

  • Necessary cleanings

  • Disinfection measures

    - Storage temperatures

    - Pest combat

  • etc.

  • Signatures are obligatory There is no proof without evidence!

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Date:

Cleaning agent:______

Disinfection agent: ______

Dilution:

Work space and adjacent walls in the processing room / etc.

Floors: __________

Walls, doors, windows:

Honey extractor

Other equipment:

Refrigerator:

Responsible / Signature:

4.

Example 1:Documentation of cleaning and disinfection measures

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Control date:

Pest detected:

Location / rooms:

Amount:

Measures:

Subsequent control:

Result:

Responsible / Signature:

4.

Example 2:Documentation of pest control and combat

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5.

Establishing self-checking mechanisms in honey production

acc. to HACCP principles

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5.

Based on the HACCP approach:

Autocontrol system for beekeepers

  • Should be as simple as possible

  • should contain all the principles that ensure good quality

  • Allowssuccessful management of beekeeping units

  • is cheap

    The system has to ensure that all factors, which influence honey quality are under control and are within the legal limits

    This system is applicable for small and medium beekeepingunits.

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5.

Autocontrol system for beekeepers, contd.

- The EC demands implementation of an Autocontrol-system

- In some European countries manuals for the production of quality honey based on HACCP have been published

- The implementation of autocontrol-systems in honey production is slow yet, since food control authorities regard honey as a microbiologically safe product

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5.

For example, in Switzerland forms have been created for the self control system, which help to evaluate hazards and document control measures

Honey - HACCP


europe.eu.int

Keyword: eur-lex, number of regulation

Honey - HACCP


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