GALAXIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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GALAXIES. These are galaxy clusters and separate galaxies taken by long-range telescope. The area of the sky covered is less than the diameter of the moon. DISTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE. Light year : ______________________________________ ________________________________________________

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Galaxies l.jpg


These are galaxy clusters and separate galaxies taken by long-range telescope. The area of the sky covered is less than the diameter of the moon.

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  • Light year: ______________________________________

  • ________________________________________________

  • Light moves at a velocity of about 180,000 miles each second (300,000 km each second). One light year is equal to 5,880,000,000,000 miles

    • Milky Way Galaxy is about 150,000 light-years across.

    • Andromeda Galaxy (one of our nearest neighboring galaxies) is 2.3 million light-years away.

    • Center of the galaxy is approximately 30,000 light years away.

Unit of distance (NOT TIME). It is the

distance that light travels in one year.

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distance light travels in a vacuum in one minute.

  • Light minute – ________________________________________

    • Sun is approximately 8.3 light-minutes away

  • Light second – _________________________________________

    • Moon is approximately 1.3 light-seconds away.

  • distance light travels in a vacuum in one second

    Astronomical Unit: _________________________________


    It is approximately 93 million miles.

    Mercury is about 1/3 of an AU from the Sun.

    It is not big enough when we talk about anything

    outside of our solar system.

    Average distance between the

    Earth and the Sun.

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    Billions of stars, dust, and gas held

    together by gravity

    Galaxies: _____________________ _____________________________


    Edwin Hubble

    ________________ was an astronomer in the 1920s who gathered many pictures of galaxies

    • noticed they all didn’t look alike

    • decided to classify them by the way they looked into 3 types

      • “E” or _____________________

      • “S” or _____________________

      • “SB” or ____________________



    Barred Spiral

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    • 3 types of galaxies wasn’t enough, so Hubble furthered divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

      • For “E” or ____________________ he looked at the amount of flattening (elongation/roundness)

        • Divided into E0 to E5



    • For “S” or ____________________ he looked at how tightly the arms were wound around the bright center

      • Divided into Sa, Sb, or Sc

    Barred Spiral

    • For “Sb” or ____________________ he looked at the increased openness of the arms (spiral arms)

      • Divided into SBa, SBb, or SBc

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    • Elliptical:

    • __________________________;

    • have an elliptical shape that ranges to nearly spherical, and lack spiral arms

    most abundant type

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    • Spiral:

    • typically disk-shaped;

    • Somewhat greater concentration of stars near their centers, often containing _________________

    • __________________________.

    arms of extending from their central nucleus

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    • Barred Spiral:

    • type of spiral galaxy

    • Has the stars arranged in the__________________, which rotates as a rigid system

    shape of a bar

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    • 4. Irregular:

    • lack symmetry

    • account for only 10 percent of known galaxies

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    The Milky Way:


    __________is only one of 200 billion stars in the Milky Way

    It is a large, disk-shaped, ______________________ about 100,000 light-years wide and about 10,000 light-years thick at the center (central bulge)

    There are 3 distinct spiral arms of stars

    spiral galaxy

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    The sun is positioned on one of these arms about 2/3 of the way from the galactic center, at a distance of 30,000 light-years.

    Scientist suspect there is a

    super massive ______________ at

    the center of the galaxy

    It takes over 200 million

    years for the sun to revolve

    around thegalactic center.

    black hole

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    II. The Expanding Universe

    A. The Big Bang Theory: ____________________________



    Idea that all matter began in an infinitely small point and exploded out in all directions

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    B. Doppler Shift

    1. red shift: ______________________________________


    2. blue shift: _____________________________________


    Galaxies moving away from us should show a shift in their spectrum toward the red end

    Galaxies moving toward us should show a shift toward the blue end of the spectrum

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    Since the spectrum for all galaxies show a ________________

    from Earth, we assume the universe is ___________________

    Red shift


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