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GALAXIES. These are galaxy clusters and separate galaxies taken by long-range telescope. The area of the sky covered is less than the diameter of the moon. DISTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE. Light year : ______________________________________ ________________________________________________

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Galaxies l.jpg
GALAXIES

These are galaxy clusters and separate galaxies taken by long-range telescope. The area of the sky covered is less than the diameter of the moon.


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DISTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE

  • Light year: ______________________________________

  • ________________________________________________

  • Light moves at a velocity of about 180,000 miles each second (300,000 km each second). One light year is equal to 5,880,000,000,000 miles

    • Milky Way Galaxy is about 150,000 light-years across.

    • Andromeda Galaxy (one of our nearest neighboring galaxies) is 2.3 million light-years away.

    • Center of the galaxy is approximately 30,000 light years away.

Unit of distance (NOT TIME). It is the

distance that light travels in one year.


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distance light travels in a vacuum in one minute.

  • Light minute – ________________________________________

    • Sun is approximately 8.3 light-minutes away

  • Light second – _________________________________________

    • Moon is approximately 1.3 light-seconds away.

  • distance light travels in a vacuum in one second

    Astronomical Unit: _________________________________

    ___________________________________________________

    It is approximately 93 million miles.

    Mercury is about 1/3 of an AU from the Sun.

    It is not big enough when we talk about anything

    outside of our solar system.

    Average distance between the

    Earth and the Sun.


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    Billions of stars, dust, and gas held

    together by gravity

    Galaxies: _____________________ _____________________________

    ______________________________

    Edwin Hubble

    ________________ was an astronomer in the 1920s who gathered many pictures of galaxies

    • noticed they all didn’t look alike

    • decided to classify them by the way they looked into 3 types

      • “E” or _____________________

      • “S” or _____________________

      • “SB” or ____________________

    Elliptical

    Spiral

    Barred Spiral


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    HUBBLE TUNING FORK DIAGRAM

    http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/SegwayEd/lessons/classifying_galaxies/answers.htm


    Slide6 l.jpg

    Elliptical

    Spiral

    • For “S” or ____________________ he looked at how tightly the arms were wound around the bright center

      • Divided into Sa, Sb, or Sc

    Barred Spiral

    • For “Sb” or ____________________ he looked at the increased openness of the arms (spiral arms)

      • Divided into SBa, SBb, or SBc


    Slide7 l.jpg

    • Elliptical: divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

    • __________________________;

    • have an elliptical shape that ranges to nearly spherical, and lack spiral arms

    most abundant type

    http://spitzer.as.utexas.edu/~twitch/M87.jpg

    http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/ImGalaxies/m95.gif


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    • Spiral: divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

    • typically disk-shaped;

    • Somewhat greater concentration of stars near their centers, often containing _________________

    • __________________________.

    arms of extending from their central nucleus

    http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/bmendez/pics/TRGB/NGC2903.jpg

    http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/education/images/cdnskies/photos/spiral-galaxy.jpg


    Slide9 l.jpg

    • Barred Spiral: divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

    • type of spiral galaxy

    • Has the stars arranged in the__________________, which rotates as a rigid system

    shape of a bar

    http://www.mindspring.com/~dhanon/ngc7479.jpg

    http://nrumiano.free.fr/Images_gx/NGC1365.jpg


    Slide10 l.jpg

    • 4. Irregular: divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

    • lack symmetry

    • account for only 10 percent of known galaxies

    http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/StarChild/universe_level2/ngc6822.gif

    http://library.thinkquest.org/3461/media/irreg_2.jpg

    http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/stark/ASTRO11/lab11-12images/irregular/aat064.jpg


    Slide11 l.jpg

    The Milky Way: divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

    Sun

    __________is only one of 200 billion stars in the Milky Way

    It is a large, disk-shaped, ______________________ about 100,000 light-years wide and about 10,000 light-years thick at the center (central bulge)

    There are 3 distinct spiral arms of stars

    spiral galaxy


    Slide12 l.jpg

    The sun is positioned on one of these arms about 2/3 of the way from the galactic center, at a distance of 30,000 light-years.

    Scientist suspect there is a

    super massive ______________ at

    the center of the galaxy

    It takes over 200 million

    years for the sun to revolve

    around thegalactic center.

    black hole


    Slide13 l.jpg

    II. The Expanding Universe way from the galactic center, at a distance of 30,000 light-years.

    A. The Big Bang Theory: ____________________________

    ________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________

    Idea that all matter began in an infinitely small point and exploded out in all directions


    Slide14 l.jpg

    http://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cgt/Courses/cgt211/private/images/projects/archive/3-SciVis/F02/Big-Bang--final.jpghttp://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cgt/Courses/cgt211/private/images/projects/archive/3-SciVis/F02/Big-Bang--final.jpg


    Slide15 l.jpg

    B. Doppler Shifthttp://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cgt/Courses/cgt211/private/images/projects/archive/3-SciVis/F02/Big-Bang--final.jpg

    1. red shift: ______________________________________

    _________________________________________________

    2. blue shift: _____________________________________

    ____________________________________________________

    Galaxies moving away from us should show a shift in their spectrum toward the red end

    Galaxies moving toward us should show a shift toward the blue end of the spectrum


    Slide16 l.jpg

    Since the spectrum for all galaxies show a ________________ http://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cgt/Courses/cgt211/private/images/projects/archive/3-SciVis/F02/Big-Bang--final.jpg

    from Earth, we assume the universe is ___________________

    Red shift

    expanding

    http://library.thinkquest.org/19537/java/Doppler.html


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