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Fourth Course. Tea, Chocolate, and the Printing Press: Asia, the Americas, and the First Cookbook, 1300–1500. Fourth Course Timeline. Fourth Course Timeline. Genghis Khan, The Mongols Road horses for transportation Ate horse meat Drank mare’s milk Made Kumiss from fermented cows milk

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Fourth Course

Tea, Chocolate, and the Printing Press:

Asia, the Americas, and the First Cookbook, 1300–1500

Linda Civitello


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Fourth Course Timeline

Linda Civitello


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Fourth Course Timeline

Linda Civitello


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  • Genghis Khan, The Mongols

    • Road horses for transportation

    • Ate horse meat

    • Drank mare’s milk

    • Made Kumiss from fermented cows milk

    • Drank horse blood

    • Invented stirrups

    • Were extremely ruthless

Linda Civitello


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  • China

  • In 618, A new dynasty arose in China

  • The Tang (619-907) The dynasty has a female emperor- Wu Zhao

  • New foods of the day were Bananas, dates, citrus and palm grown in the south

  • Litchi was the emperors favorite food.

Linda Civitello


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  • Foods: Sugar cane, spinach, lettuce, almonds, figs and grapes were known

  • Ale was an obsession and alcoholism was idealized

  • The use of hallucinogenic drugs was widespread

  • Salt was heavily taxed.

  • The Tang Dynasty advanced The Arts

  • Northern China (Beijing) had millet, meat and dairy products

  • Southern China had rice, fish, pork, vegetables, and fruits

Linda Civitello


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  • Definition of Cuisine: A self-conscious tradition of cooking and eating… with a set of attitudes of food and its place in the life of man.

  • Rice –a- staple.

  • A strain of rice was imported form Champs (Vietnam). The rice matured faster and provided two crops per season and was drought tolerant.

  • The upper-class of the day ate polished white rice.

Linda Civitello


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  • The seven necessities: and eating… with a set of attitudes of food and its place in the life of man.

  • Firewood, rice, oil, salt, soybean sauce, vinegar and tea. Why?

  • What are the seven necessities of today? Lets make a list? ½ sheet- now

  • In cities like Kaifeng and Hangchow, they had markets for grain, pork, beef, venison, horse, rabbits, fowl, veggies, fish, and fruit.

Linda Civitello


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Linda Civitello


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  • State Banquets: on the floor to chair seating.

    • Very lavish with over two hundred dishes and table service of jade, pearl and sliver. Your station was based on where you sat and how many courses you received.

  • China:

    • Huge country with massive natural recourses. Diets of both countries relied on rice.

  • In 804, a Japanese monk brought back tea from China, which began the tradition of tea in Japan. Interesting!

Linda Civitello


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  • The way of Tea: Four Values on the floor to chair seating.

    • Reverence

    • Respect

    • Purity

    • Tranquility

  • The Tea Ceremony: Heightens and involves the senses, small meals called Kaiseki. Sitting together, food is the flower of the Japanese cuisine.

Linda Civitello


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  • Soup, boiled Salmon, Seaweed, Chestnuts, mushrooms and rice. on the floor to chair seating.

  • Europe: the Bubonic Plague-The black Death. Rats covered with flees spread the plague far and wide, over seas and land. The plague was aided by poor nutrition and poor personal hygiene. It killed 25 million in Europe, 4 million in Asia and 35 million in China- Horrible!

Linda Civitello


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Linda Civitello


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  • Italy- The Renaissance: 1000 years after the fall of the Roman Empire, Italians found and rediscovered the culture and cuisine of the classic Greeks and Romans.

  • The Renaissance was characterized by an increase in trade and learning and consideration for humanitism.

  • The artists of the day were: Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, and Donatello

Linda Civitello


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  • In the 16 Roman Empire, Italians found and rediscovered the culture and cuisine of the classic Greeks and Romans.th century, Italians were rich and powerful-

  • The Medici Family was the most powerful. The family acted as the middleman between Arab traders in the East and Western Europe. They had so much money they became bankers and loaned money. They were the royalty of the era that were not born nobles.

  • The upper-class has “delicate” meats such as partridges while the lower-class had bread.

Linda Civitello


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  • Germany: The Printing Press Roman Empire, Italians found and rediscovered the culture and cuisine of the classic Greeks and Romans.

  • In 1454, Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press, a major accomplishment. The Chinese had invented one earlier but with their intricate language it did not work well.

  • The first book published-The Bible

  • Books of the era were about health and immortality.

  • In 1474, the first cookbook was published because it was a medical and life advise book that had recipes.

Linda Civitello


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  • Germany: Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. In 1517 A German Monk, Martin Luther wrote of the 95 faults of the catholic church.

  • The Pope excommunicated Luther, so he couldn’t receive the sacraments.

  • Later on, some princes protected Luther for two years while he translated the bible from Latin to German, so more people could read this cherished document.

Linda Civitello


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Portugal 1517 A German Monk, Martin Luther wrote of the 95 faults of the catholic church.: The Rise in World Trade and The Quest for Spices

Prince Henry was a navigator and loved the idea of exploring.

The Portuguese wanted to find a way to bypass the Arabs and Italian fleets and source spices and precious items directly to cut out the middleman. They sailed south down the coast around the Cape of Good Hope and up the east coast of Africa, across open sea east of India and arrived in Indonesia, then the Spice Islands.

Linda Civitello


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  • The Chinese were looking for a shorter route to the Middle East. From 1405-1433 Admiral Zheng He went on seven voyages. After a political shift in which the conservative Confucian Scholars who did not want to pollute China by engaging in business with foreigners, Zheng retired.

  • The scholars declared it illegal to build a ship with more than two masts, which made long-distance travel impossible.

Linda Civitello


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  • The American Empire: East. From 1405-1433 Admiral Zheng He went on seven voyages. After a political shift in which the conservative Confucian Scholars who did not want to pollute China by engaging in business with foreigners, Zheng retired.

  • Think about this: In North or South America no one had ever had measles, smallpox, diphtheria, or whooping cough (vaccinated shortly after birth), nor mosquito borne malaria, or typhus which is spread by lice, or even as simple as the common cold.

  • There were no weeds like crabgrass or dandelions. No brown or black rats or bees. What did we do to the Americas?

Linda Civitello


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  • There were several cultures in North America. They were in: East. From 1405-1433 Admiral Zheng He went on seven voyages. After a political shift in which the conservative Confucian Scholars who did not want to pollute China by engaging in business with foreigners, Zheng retired.

    • Near present day St. Louis on the Mississippi

    • In the Andes mountains in Peru

    • Near the city now known as Mexico City

  • They were held together by a complex set of trade routes.

  • Interesting enough there were no carts because the native animals could not be domesticated, like polar, grizzly, brown and black bears, Jaguars, lynxes, and wolves.

Linda Civitello


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  • The Incas East. From 1405-1433 Admiral Zheng He went on seven voyages. After a political shift in which the conservative Confucian Scholars who did not want to pollute China by engaging in business with foreigners, Zheng retired.

  • Ruled a large empire. From present day Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, to Chile.

  • The Incas built roads and bridges (14,000 miles)

  • There capital City was Cuzco at 11,444 feet above sea level

  • They mummified their dead.

  • They worked with the “Sweat of the sun”, which was gold.

  • No private ownership of land

  • They grew quinoa, a grain

  • Incas ate deer and a rabbit like animal called Vizcaha. Our beef jerky comes from the Incas because they air dried meat- llama.

Linda Civitello


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  • Another staple was guinea pig which they domesticated, it tasted like fishy pork, they said.

  • They cultivated more than 3000 varieties of potato. They freeze dried potatoes.

  • They stored water for future use.

  • Corn from Mexico was a staple Inca food. Interestingly, their corn was not like ours, it had bigger kernels, and the taste and texture was different.

  • Tomatoes and Chile peppers were native to Peru.

Linda Civitello


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  • Central America tasted like fishy pork, they said.

  • In 1325, the Mexicas or Aztecs arrived at what is now Mexico City

  • The Aztecs worshiped a sun god which demanded a human sacrifice daily. The person had to walk up steps of a Pyramid to the altar, while alive their hearts were cut out, still beating and offered to the gods, the rest of the body was tossed down the steps, divided, stewed with maize and eaten. Cannibalism may have been a religion in those times.

  • Aztecs worshipped the god of fire. Much of Mexico’s cooking is from the Aztecs.

  • Mothers taught daughters how to cook and at thirteen they were supposed to be accomplished cooks, like today?

Linda Civitello


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  • Being a cook was dangerous, when their nobility died they were buried with them alive!

  • One of the most important foodstuffs was chocolate (cacahuatl) from the seeds of the cocoa plant. Chocolate was the preferred drink which was drunk lukewarm.

  • Protein came from deer, rabbits, jackrabbits, mice, armadillos, snakes, gophers, opossums, and iguanas.

  • Dogs (not like ours) were bred to be eaten. Water bugs, frogs, tadpoles, worm larvae were also eaten.

Linda Civitello


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  • The Southwest: were buried with them

  • Very Ingenious: Ancient native people built communal housing for up to maybe 1000 people. They had a three-crop growing system. The “three sisters” corn, beans, and squash: corn grew up, beans were trellised, and the big leaves of the squash would keep the ground moist (mulch).

  • Chiles contain capsaicin an active ingredient which stimulates pain in the mouth. Fire/sweat (David Letterman)

Linda Civitello


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  • The $151,780 in 1991 U.S. Dollars would yield 200 % profit and Spain a great Nation- A very wise investment.

  • Christopher Columbus, with the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria, set sail on August 2, 1492.

  • They had food for one year mostly dried and salted. Rice, dried chickpeas, beef, pork,anchovies and sardines, casks of olive oil and wine for 1 ½ liter per day and hardtack, which was solid unleavened biscuit. They would supplement their diets with fish if caught. Cooking was held to a minimum, one pot meals at best and rats, roaches and lice were always there.

  • On the initial voyage from the Canary Islands, they were at sea for 33 days and finally saw land, they were on the Eastern Bahamas.

Linda Civitello


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  • They claimed the land for Spain. and Spain a great Nation-

  • They were met by indigos-Indians who were naked, good-looking and friendly.

  • They had wooden weapons and Columbus thought they would be easy to convert to Christianity.

Linda Civitello


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The End of The Fourth Course and Spain a great Nation-

Linda Civitello


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Linda Civitello and Spain a great Nation-


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Linda Civitello and Spain a great Nation-


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