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Feeding for High Production and Profit. Dan Morrical Iowa State University Ames, Iowa. Nutrient Requirements. Reading those charts. Nutrient Requirements. Using those charts ex. 175 ewe 1.62 TDN and .28 CP Alfalfa 50% TDN1.62/.5 = 3.2 lbs. 3.2 X 16%CP = .51 lbs. of CP MCS 19.

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Feeding for High Production and Profit

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Feeding for High Production and Profit

Dan Morrical

Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa


Nutrient Requirements

  • Reading those charts


Nutrient Requirements

  • Using those charts

  • ex. 175 ewe 1.62 TDN and .28 CP

  • Alfalfa 50% TDN1.62/.5 = 3.2 lbs.

  • 3.2 X 16%CP = .51 lbs. of CP

  • MCS 19


Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements of Ewes

  • Age

    • ewe lambs Vs yearlings Vs mature

  • Weight

    • 135 to 250 pound ewes

  • Stage Production

    • maintenance Vs lactation

  • Level of Production

    • rearing singles Vs twins Vs triplets


Concerns During Early Mid Gestation

  • 21 days of severe underfeeding

  • 80 days of moderate underfeeding

  • Both result in smaller placenta leading to reduced birthweights


Mid Gestation Nutrition Goals

  • Maintain condition - mature ewes

  • Yearlings and two year olds - increase condition

    • Higher incidence of fetal loss in young ewes.

  • Specific nutrients

    • Protein maybe

      • Other species - protein deficiency severely impacts placental size more than energy

  • Crop aftermath grazing - ?? protein


Recommendations for LG Feeding

  • Alfalfa hay based diets

    • Corn or other economical energy sources

    • Guideline - 1 LB. concentrate per fetus

  • Limit roughage intake

    • Mature ewes with 3 fetus or more

    • All ewe lambs

  • Low quality roughage as base ration require both protein and energy supplementation

  • Low energy diets with poor roughage's may respond to escape protein - MLC, 1983


Real Time Ultrasound Technology

  • Opportunity to fine tune the greatest unknown of sheep production

    which is ????


Australia Experiment

No. of FetusesTotal ScansExp. 1Exp. 2

0268100100

1127699.198.1

21115 79.9 96.9

34452.3*

440**

*20 of 21 classed as 2

** All classed as 3


Feeding by Fetal Number

Objective

  • Control feed resource allocation

  • Modify birthweights

    • smaller singles

    • larger multiples

  • Increase lamb vigor, survival and growth


Late Gestation

Secretory tissue development occurs.

Larger placenta  more placenta lactogen.

Ewes with multiples have larger placenta weight.


Consequences of Underfeeding

  • Weak, small lambs with high mortality

  • Reduced colostrum quality and quantity

  • Retarded weight gain both pre & post weaning

  • Reduced peak milk yield and less total production

  • Decreased re-breeding success

  • Reduced wool production via fewer secondary follicles


Consequences of Overfeeding

  • Thin wallets

  • Fat ewes

  • Upper limit on birthweight


Lactation Nutrition

  • Highest nutrient requirement

  • May be 50% of winter feed bill

  • Tremendous intake potential

    • self feed big packages


Factors Which Affect Milk Production

  • Lactation Diet Energy Status

  • Lactation Diet Protein Status

  • Late Gestation Nutrition - precaution

  • Ewe Fatness or Condition

  • Prolificacy


Must Determine Yield Levels

One pound of lamb gain requires

4-5 pounds of ewe’s milk

Separate Ewes in to Production Groups

Example:singles Vs twins Vs triplets


7.5

7

6.5

6

5.5

5

4.5

4

Milk Production Relative to Body Fatness

4. 37 lb TDN

Max. Milk Yield

lbs/day

2. 92 lb TDN

11223344

Fat in Body (lbs.)


8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

.37

.52

.66

.83

.83

.93

.93

1.10

Energy and Protein Vs. Yield

M

i

l

k

Y

i

e

l

d

2.35 TDN

1.86 TDN

1.28 TDN

Protein Intake


Milk Yield Results from Additional Protein

Protein Added

Protein Source.18 lbs. .44 lbs.

Urea.29 0

Nutmeal.88 0

Soybean Meal.88 0

Meat & Bone Meal.88 0

Linseed Meal1.32 0

Fish Meal1.32.55

Blood Meal1.32.74

145 lb. ewes rearing twins fed base diet 2.67 TDN 11.6% CP

Gonzalez et al. 1982


Value of Protein Sources for UIP

Escape

Protein

Conc. %

% CP% Escape

Grass Pasture 6-20 10 2

Alfalfa Hay16-24 15 2.7

Dehydrated Alfalfa16-18 20 3.4

SBM 44, Solvent 44 25 11

SBM 44, Expeller 43 50 21.5

CGM 60 40 24

Blood Meal 85 80 68

Fish Meal 6040-8024-48


Efficiency of Fat Mobilization for Milk

  • Protein Deficient diet50%

  • Adequate protein80%


Protein: Energy Relationship

  • Inverse Relationship

  • Less Energy Intake  More Protein (UIP) to balance fat mobilization.

  • Minimum protein per level of energy Intake.

  • Minimal level increases with increased yield.

  • Protein above minimum will milk production if genetic potential is not met.


Protein: Energy Relationship

  • Minimal level increases with increased yield.

  • Protein above minimum will milk production if genetic potential is not met.


Do My Ewes Need Escape Protein?

Under weight loss - response will be seen within 3 days.

No weight loss - response more persistent yield.


Rules for Maximum Milk Yield

  • Must feed adequate energy to prevent weight loss.

  • Otherwise ewes cannot express genetic potential.


Requirements per Pound of Milk

  • Above Maintenance

    Energy = .46 lbs TDN

    Protein = .11 lbs CP


Mastitis Control

  • Start drying up before weaning

    • feed low protein and energy feed

      • 5-10 days pre-weaning

    • feed low protein and energy feed

      • 3-5 days post-weaning

    • wean cold turkey


Feeding Ewes

Requires balance between

Feed Costs

and

Meeting Requirements


Feeding Ewes

Requires balance between

Feed Costs

and

Meeting Requirements


Feed Costs

  • Know requirements

  • Use condition scoring

  • Test hays

  • Buy feeds on nutrient cost basis

  • Control waste

  • Extend grazing season by

    improved management


Example Corn Vs Hay

Corn serves as the Standard energy source

$2.24 / bu / 56 = $.04 per pound

$.04 / 77% TDN = $.052 per pound TDN

Hay is worth:

2000 pound X 50% TDN = 1000 lb TDN

1000 X $.052 = $52 / ton

assumes no waste


Summary

  • All phases of production are important

  • One can not starve or feed a profit

  • Correctly feeding the flock requires morethan one pen

  • Lactation takes both protein and energy

  • Ewes on accelerated systems

    cannot lose much condition


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