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Feeding for High Production and Profit. Dan Morrical Iowa State University Ames, Iowa. Nutrient Requirements. Reading those charts. Nutrient Requirements. Using those charts ex. 175 ewe 1.62 TDN and .28 CP Alfalfa 50% TDN 1.62/.5 = 3.2 lbs. 3.2 X 16%CP = .51 lbs. of CP MCS 19.

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Feeding for high production and profit l.jpg
Feeding for High Production and Profit

Dan Morrical

Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa


Nutrient requirements l.jpg
Nutrient Requirements

  • Reading those charts


Nutrient requirements3 l.jpg
Nutrient Requirements

  • Using those charts

  • ex. 175 ewe 1.62 TDN and .28 CP

  • Alfalfa 50% TDN 1.62/.5 = 3.2 lbs.

  • 3.2 X 16%CP = .51 lbs. of CP

  • MCS 19


Factors affecting nutrient requirements of ewes l.jpg
Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements of Ewes

  • Age

    • ewe lambs Vs yearlings Vs mature

  • Weight

    • 135 to 250 pound ewes

  • Stage Production

    • maintenance Vs lactation

  • Level of Production

    • rearing singles Vs twins Vs triplets


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Concerns During Early Mid Gestation

  • 21 days of severe underfeeding

  • 80 days of moderate underfeeding

  • Both result in smaller placenta leading to reduced birthweights


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Mid Gestation Nutrition Goals

  • Maintain condition - mature ewes

  • Yearlings and two year olds - increase condition

    • Higher incidence of fetal loss in young ewes.

  • Specific nutrients

    • Protein maybe

      • Other species - protein deficiency severely impacts placental size more than energy

  • Crop aftermath grazing - ?? protein


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Recommendations for LG Feeding

  • Alfalfa hay based diets

    • Corn or other economical energy sources

    • Guideline - 1 LB. concentrate per fetus

  • Limit roughage intake

    • Mature ewes with 3 fetus or more

    • All ewe lambs

  • Low quality roughage as base ration require both protein and energy supplementation

  • Low energy diets with poor roughage's may respond to escape protein - MLC, 1983


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Real Time Ultrasound Technology

  • Opportunity to fine tune the greatest unknown of sheep production

    which is ????


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Australia Experiment

No. of Fetuses Total Scans Exp. 1 Exp. 2

0 268 100 100

1 1276 99.1 98.1

2 1115 79.9 96.9

3 44 52.3*

4 4 0**

*20 of 21 classed as 2

** All classed as 3


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Feeding by Fetal Number

Objective

  • Control feed resource allocation

  • Modify birthweights

    • smaller singles

    • larger multiples

  • Increase lamb vigor, survival and growth


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Late Gestation

Secretory tissue development occurs.

Larger placenta  more placenta lactogen.

Ewes with multiples have larger placenta weight.


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Consequences of Underfeeding

  • Weak, small lambs with high mortality

  • Reduced colostrum quality and quantity

  • Retarded weight gain both pre & post weaning

  • Reduced peak milk yield and less total production

  • Decreased re-breeding success

  • Reduced wool production via fewer secondary follicles


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Consequences of Overfeeding

  • Thin wallets

  • Fat ewes

  • Upper limit on birthweight


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Lactation Nutrition

  • Highest nutrient requirement

  • May be 50% of winter feed bill

  • Tremendous intake potential

    • self feed big packages


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Factors Which Affect Milk Production

  • Lactation Diet Energy Status

  • Lactation Diet Protein Status

  • Late Gestation Nutrition - precaution

  • Ewe Fatness or Condition

  • Prolificacy


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Must Determine Yield Levels

One pound of lamb gain requires

4-5 pounds of ewe’s milk

Separate Ewes in to Production Groups

Example: singles Vs twins Vs triplets


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7.5

7

6.5

6

5.5

5

4.5

4

Milk Production Relative to Body Fatness

4. 37 lb TDN

Max. Milk Yield

lbs/day

2. 92 lb TDN

11 22 33 44

Fat in Body (lbs.)


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

.37

.52

.66

.83

.83

.93

.93

1.10

Energy and Protein Vs. Yield

M

i

l

k

Y

i

e

l

d

2.35 TDN

1.86 TDN

1.28 TDN

Protein Intake


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Milk Yield Results from Additional Protein

Protein Added

Protein Source .18 lbs. .44 lbs.

Urea .29 0

Nutmeal .88 0

Soybean Meal .88 0

Meat & Bone Meal .88 0

Linseed Meal 1.32 0

Fish Meal 1.32 .55

Blood Meal 1.32 .74

145 lb. ewes rearing twins fed base diet 2.67 TDN 11.6% CP

Gonzalez et al. 1982


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Value of Protein Sources for UIP

Escape

Protein

Conc. %

% CP % Escape

Grass Pasture 6-20 10 2

Alfalfa Hay 16-24 15 2.7

Dehydrated Alfalfa 16-18 20 3.4

SBM 44, Solvent 44 25 11

SBM 44, Expeller 43 50 21.5

CGM 60 40 24

Blood Meal 85 80 68

Fish Meal 60 40-80 24-48


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Efficiency of Fat Mobilization for Milk

  • Protein Deficient diet 50%

  • Adequate protein 80%


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Protein: Energy Relationship

  • Inverse Relationship

  • Less Energy Intake  More Protein (UIP) to balance fat mobilization.

  • Minimum protein per level of energy Intake.

  • Minimal level increases with increased yield.

  • Protein above minimum will milk production if genetic potential is not met.


Protein energy relationship23 l.jpg
Protein: Energy Relationship

  • Minimal level increases with increased yield.

  • Protein above minimum will milk production if genetic potential is not met.


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Do My Ewes Need Escape Protein?

Under weight loss - response will be seen within 3 days.

No weight loss - response more persistent yield.


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Rules for Maximum Milk Yield

  • Must feed adequate energy to prevent weight loss.

  • Otherwise ewes cannot express genetic potential.


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Requirements per Pound of Milk

  • Above Maintenance

    Energy = .46 lbs TDN

    Protein = .11 lbs CP


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Mastitis Control

  • Start drying up before weaning

    • feed low protein and energy feed

      • 5-10 days pre-weaning

    • feed low protein and energy feed

      • 3-5 days post-weaning

    • wean cold turkey


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Feeding Ewes

Requires balance between

Feed Costs

and

Meeting Requirements


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Feeding Ewes

Requires balance between

Feed Costs

and

Meeting Requirements


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Feed Costs

  • Know requirements

  • Use condition scoring

  • Test hays

  • Buy feeds on nutrient cost basis

  • Control waste

  • Extend grazing season by

    improved management


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Example Corn Vs Hay

Corn serves as the Standard energy source

$2.24 / bu / 56 = $.04 per pound

$.04 / 77% TDN = $.052 per pound TDN

Hay is worth:

2000 pound X 50% TDN = 1000 lb TDN

1000 X $.052 = $52 / ton

assumes no waste


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Summary

  • All phases of production are important

  • One can not starve or feed a profit

  • Correctly feeding the flock requires more than one pen

  • Lactation takes both protein and energy

  • Ewes on accelerated systems

    cannot lose much condition


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