PART 3: MOTOR STRATEGIES
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PART 3: MOTOR STRATEGIES #11: MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS I. exam I motor strategies mate calling in crickets song production by  s song recognition by  s sender-receiver matching summary. SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT. VISION. CENTRAL INTEGRATION. COURT.

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PART 3: MOTOR STRATEGIES

#11: MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS I

  • exam I

  • motor strategies

  • mate calling in crickets

    • song production by s

    • song recognition by s

    • sender-receiver matching

    • summary


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SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT

VISION

CENTRAL

INTEGRATION

COURT

OLFACTION

FORAGE

GUSTATION

ATTACK

AUDITION

ESCAPE

MOTIVATION

FREEZE

MOTOR STRATEGIES


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SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT

VISION

CENTRAL

INTEGRATION

COURT

OLFACTION

FORAGE

GUSTATION

ATTACK

AUDITION

ESCAPE

MOTIVATION

FREEZE

MOTOR STRATEGIES


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SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT

VISION

CENTRAL

INTEGRATION

COURT

OLFACTION

FORAGE

GUSTATION

ATTACK

AUDITION

ESCAPE

MOTIVATION

FREEZE

MOTOR STRATEGIES


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MOTOR STRATEGIES

  • complex activity, requires

    • eg, coordinated operation of limbs

    • often rapid & appropriate responses to environmental signals

    • sensory-motor interface... behavior itself changes requirements of subsequent behavior


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • song production by s only...

  • innate recognition by s...

  • innate attraction by s

  • s navigate s... courtship

  • stereotypic song

  • many species... many different songs


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • ~ 2600 modern cricket species

  • most work on 3 related temperate latitude families:

    • bush crickets (Tettigoniidae)

    • field crickets (Gryllidae)

    • mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)

  • most nocturnal

  • high predation... many predators, avoid by

    • hiding, freezing, burrowing, fleeing, camouflage

    • short calls ~ ventriloquism... hard to locate


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • song production in s by scraping wings together

  • several types of song

    • calling song

    • courtship song

    • aggressive song


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • song production in s by scraping wings together

  • several types of song

    • calling song

      •  response  = positive phonotaxis

      • call & remain stationary... attract single 

      • call & move... attract many s

      • amplify & direct call using hollow trees, burrows

    • courtship song

    • aggressive song


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • song production in s by scraping wings together

  • several types of song

    • calling song

    • courtship song

      • 1 of many signals (olfactory, visual, tactile)

    • aggressive song


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • song production in s by scraping wings together

  • several types of song

    • calling song

    • courtship song

    • aggressive song

      • establish territory

      • threaten impending aggression


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MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS

  • several types of song

    • 1st…how NOT to study cricket songs…

    • calling song…

    • courtship song

    • aggressive song…

      • establish territory

      • threaten impending aggression


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SONG PRODUCTION BY s

  • calling by wing scissor motion = stridulation

  • file & scraper on wings

  • sound ~ comb

  • chirps & syllables

  • sonogram... amplify...


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SONG PRODUCTION BY s

  •  oscillogram

    • cycles

      • carrier frequency

      • 5 kHz

      • 1 scraper tooth

    • pulses

      • = syllables

      • 1 stridulation

    • chirps & trills

    • sequences


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HEAD

SONG PRODUCTION BY s

  • cricket CNS

    • chain of ganglia = functional aggregates of neurons

    • linked by paired connectives

    • brain (3 fused)

      • sensory input

    • subeosphageal ganglion

    • thoracic ganglia (3)

    • abdominal ganglia (?)


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SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY

  • meso- & metathoracic ganglia

  • motor neurons innervate

    • wing elevator muscles

    • wing depressor muscles


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SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY

  • meso- & metathoracic ganglia

  • motor neurons innervate

    • wing elevator muscles

    • wing depressor muscles

  • observe a coordinated

    sequence of events…

  • record from

    • motoneuron

    • muscle... EMG

      • electromyogram


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SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY

  • correlate with

    • tegmen movement

    • muscle contraction

    • sound

... closing only

  • note timing of events

    • oscillating pattern

    • reciprocal output to antagonistic muscles

    • typical rhythmic motor activity... eg ,walking


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SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY

  • correlate

    • calls (A)

  • interneuron

    spikes

  • motoneuron

    spikes

  • activity (B)

  • inhibition (C)

  • thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generator


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TRIGGERING A SONG

  • central pattern generator (CPG)  call “machinery”

  • brain  call “decision”... from 3 experiments:

    • focal stimulation in head

      •  call & courtship songs

    • stimulate cervical connective (in “neck”)

      •  call & courtship songs

    • cut off head... stimulate individual neurons in cervical connective...

      •  call, courtship & aggression

      • single neurons encode each type of trigger


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TRIGGERING A SONG

  • central pattern generator (CPG)  call “machinery”

  • brain  call “decision”

    • signals not ~ timing

      of calls, only onset


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TRIGGERING A SONG

  • brain / cervical connective stimulation shows that...

    • behavior onset but not pattern timing ~ stimulation

      • descending signals need patterning from CPG

    • stimulus freq. ~ rate of chirping

      • only rate encoded by brain

    • stimulus freq. or strength   transition from call  courtship or aggression

      • weakest trigger  call


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TRIGGERING A SONG

  • brain / cervical connective stimulation shows that...

    • duration of brain stimulus ~ duration of call

      • constant brain stimulus required for call

    • some stimulation  call suppression... stimulus off  resumed calling more intense, often  courtship, postinhibitory rebound

      • ~ song  courtship in nature


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SONG RECOGNITION BY s

  •  song &  response studied for > 200 yrs

  • how do s

    • recognize song ?

    • navigate s

      ... phonotaxis ?

  • can test for hrs

    • distance constant

    • never “”

  • many versions of device... different questions


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SONG RECOGNITION BY s

  •  walks toward artificial call

    • zigzag pattern

    • oscillations 60° ~ direct line to source


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SONG RECOGNITION BY s

  • what song features attract s ?

  • computer-constructed songs played s

  • varied components

    • syllable rate

    • syllable duration

    • chirp rate

    • # syllables / chirp

    • duty cycle / chirp


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SONG RECOGNITION BY s

  • what song features attract s ?

  • computer-constructed songs played s

  • varied components

    • syllable rate

      • 30 / s

    • others not critical


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  • associated with trachea

SONG RECOGNITION & LOCALIZATION

  • how does the 

    • first recognize the song ?

    • localize the song ?

  • 2 tympanic membranes

  • ~ 60 auditory receptor cells

  • auditory neurons 

  • auditory nerve CNS

    (prothoracic ganglion)


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SONG RECOGNITION & LOCALIZATION

  • tracheal tubes = insect “lungs”

  • connect tympanum  outside via spiracles

  • sound via 2 routes

    • direct

    • indirect

  • distance  ½ wave

    • pull / push



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