Biological macromolecules
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Biological Macromolecules . Large molecules that perform many important biological functions Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Many are polymers Large molecule that is made of repeating units of identical or similar subunits Each subunit=monomer. Biological Polymerization.

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Biological macromolecules l.jpg
Biological Macromolecules

  • Large molecules that perform many important biological functions

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Proteins

    • Nucleic Acids

  • Many are polymers

    • Large molecule that is made of repeating units of identical or similar subunits

    • Each subunit=monomer


Biological polymerization l.jpg
Biological Polymerization

  • Accomplished through covalent bonding

  • Often takes place via dehydration reactions which result in the release of a water molecule/bond formed

  • Process can be reversed by hydrolysis which breaks bonds by the addition of water


Slide3 l.jpg

Fig. 5-2

HO

HO

H

1

2

3

H

Short polymer

Unlinked monomer

Dehydration removes a water

molecule, forming a new bond

H2O

HO

2

H

4

1

3

Longer polymer

(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer

HO

H

3

4

2

1

Hydrolysis adds a water

molecule, breaking a bond

H2O

H

HO

HO

2

H

1

3

(b) Hydrolysis of a polymer


Carbohydrates l.jpg
Carbohydrates

  • Comprises sugars and polymers of sugars

  • Used for variety of functions

    • Energy-simple sugars

    • Storage of energy-starches

    • Structural components-cellulose and chitin


Monosaccharides l.jpg
Monosaccharides

  • Simple sugars=monomers

  • Usually have chemical composition of CxH2xOx

  • Can exist as chains or rings (usually rings in solution)

  • Monosaccharides combine to form disaccharides


Sugar classification l.jpg
Sugar Classification

  • Sugars may be classified by:

    • Number of carbons in chain

    • Location of carbonyl group

    • Position of side groups from asymmetrical carbon


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Fig. 5-3

Trioses (C3H6O3)

Pentoses (C5H10O5)

Hexoses (C6H12O6)

Aldoses

Glyceraldehyde

Ribose

Glucose

Galactose

Ketoses

Dihydroxyacetone

Ribulose

Fructose


Disaccharide formation l.jpg
Disaccharide Formation

  • Disaccharides are formed by the dehydration reaction between two monosaccharides

  • Bond between monosaccharides is called the glycosidic linkage

    • Linkage may occur between different different carbons


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Fig. 5-5

1–4

glycosidic

linkage

Glucose

Glucose

Maltose

(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose

1–2

glycosidic

linkage

Glucose

Fructose

Sucrose

(b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose


Storage carbohydrates l.jpg
Storage Carbohydrates

  • Polysaccharides=many monomers in one polymer

    • Glucose is most common monomer used

  • Starches =plants use for energy storage

    • Amylose is unbranched chain of glucose monomers

  • Glycogen=animals use glycogen as medium-term energy storage

    • Glycogen is highly-branched polymer of glucose monomers

    • Cells contain enough glycogen for approximately one day’s activity


Structural carbohydrates l.jpg
Structural Carbohydrates

  • Cellulose

    • Most abundant organic compound on earth

    • Plants use cellulose as structural component of cell walls

    • Most animals cannot digest

      • Certain bacteria can degrade cellulose

      • Cows and termites have symbiotic relationship w/ bacteria

    • Fiber in your diet usually means cellulose

      • Not digested so acts as a mechanical cleansing mechanism as it passes through the intestines

    • Comprises polymerized units of glucose


Starch vs cellulose l.jpg
Starch vs Cellulose

  • Both use 1-4 glycosidic linkage of glucose

  • Starch uses a configuration of glucose

    • Results in helical molecule

  • Cellulose uses B configuration of glucose

    • Forms linear strands that interact to form fiber bundles


Structural carbohydrates 2 l.jpg
Structural Carbohydrates 2

  • Chitin

    • Comprises polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)

      • Similar to glucose but possesses a nitrogen-containing side chain

      • Major component of insect and crustacean exoskeleton

      • Major component of fungal cell walls

      • Can be flexible or made rigid by interacting with calcium

        • Cross-links the structure


Carbohydrate summary l.jpg
Carbohydrate Summary

  • Can be used for energy, storage and structural uses

  • Designated by length of carbon chain, location of carbonyl group, and position of side groups around asymmetric carbons

  • Glucose and modified glucose is used in all three major functions of carbohydrates


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