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Avian Influenza (Highly Pathogenic). Fowl plague, Fowl pest, Peste aviaire, Geflugelpest, Typhus exudatious gallinarium, Brunswick bird plague, Brunswick disease, Fowl disease, Fowl or bird grippe. Overview. Organism Economic Impact Epidemiology Transmission Clinical Signs

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Avian influenza highly pathogenic l.jpg

Avian Influenza (Highly Pathogenic)

Fowl plague, Fowl pest, Peste aviaire, Geflugelpest, Typhus exudatious gallinarium, Brunswick bird plague, Brunswick disease, Fowl disease, Fowl or bird grippe


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Organism

  • Economic Impact

  • Epidemiology

  • Transmission

  • Clinical Signs

  • Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Prevention and Control

  • Actions to take

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



Influenza virus l.jpg
Influenza Virus

  • Family Orthomyxoviridae

    • “myxo” means mucus

  • Three main types

    • Type A

      • Multiple species

    • Type B

      • Humans

    • Type C

      • Humans and swine

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


Influenza a l.jpg
Influenza A

  • Multiple species

    • Humans, pigs, horses, birds, others

  • Most virulent group

  • Classification by surface antigensinto subtypes

    • Hemagglutinin (H or HA)

    • Neuraminidase (N or NA)

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Influenza A

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Influenza A

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



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Influenza B University, 2008

  • Mostly humans

  • Common

  • Less severe than A

  • Epidemics occur less often than A

  • Human seasonal vaccine

    • Two strains of type A

    • One strain of type B

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Influenza C University, 2008

  • Humans and swine

  • Different pattern of surface proteins

  • Rare

    • Mild to no symptoms

  • By age 15, most have antibodies

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


Avian influenza l.jpg
Avian Influenza University, 2008

  • Disease based on genetic features and/or severity of disease in poultry

    • Low pathogenic AI (LPAI)

      • H1 to H16 subtypes

    • Highly pathogenic AI (HPAI)

      • Some H5 or H7 subtypes

      • LPAI H5 or H7 subtypes can mutate into HPAI

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Importance University, 2008


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History University, 2008

  • 1878: First identified case in Italy

  • 1924-25: First U.S. cases

  • Mildly pathogenic avian influenza first identified mid-twentieth century

  • 1970’s

    • Migratory waterfowl carriers

    • Outbreaks in mink, seals and whales

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Economic Impact University, 2008

  • Direct losses:

    • Depopulation and disposal

    • High morbidity and mortality

    • Quarantine and surveillance

    • Indemnities

  • 1978-1996: Seasonal outbreaks in Minnesota cost taxpayers $22 million

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Economic Impact University, 2008

  • 1983: U.S. outbreak (H5N2)

    • $65 million in losses

    • Destruction of 17 million birds

    • 30% increase in egg prices

  • 1999-2000: Italy outbreak (H7N1)

    • $100 million in compensation to farmers

    • 18 million birds destroyed

    • Indirect losses of $500 million

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Economic Impact University, 2008

  • 1997: Hong Kong outbreak (H5N1)

    • $13 million for depopulation and indemnities

    • 1.4 million birds

  • 2001: Hong Kong

    outbreak (H5N1)

    • 1.2 million birds

    • $3.8 million

  • 2003: European outbreak (H7N7)

    • 30 million birds destroyed

    • $314 million

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Epidemiology University, 2008


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Geographic Distribution University, 2008

  • Worldwide distribution

  • Reservoir

    • Free flying aquatic birds: Ducks, geese, shorebirds, gulls, terns, auks

  • Outbreaks worldwide now

  • Similarity to Newcastle Disease makes actual distribution difficult to define

  • Altered avian ecosystems have created new niche for AI viruses

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Epidemiology: Birds University, 2008

  • Initial source of infection

    • Migrating ducks or other waterfowl

  • Spread by aerosol, shared drinking water, fomites

    • To other migratory waterfowl, domestic poultry and pigs, pet birds

  • Virus found in respiratory secretions and feces

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Epidemiology: Pigs University, 2008

  • Susceptible to infection with all subtypes of avian influenza A

    • Called a “mixing vessel”

  • Receptors for both avian and human influenza virus

  • In US H1N1 stable for almost 30 years

  • Now H1N1, H3N2, H1N2

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Transmission University, 2008


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Animal Transmission University, 2008

  • Initial source of infection

    • Other poultry, migratory waterfowl, domestic pigs, pet birds

  • Spread by aerosol, shared drinking water, fomites

  • Virus in respiratory secretions and feces

  • Virus present in eggs but eggs unlikely to survive and hatch

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Human Transmission University, 2008

  • Previously considered non-pathogenic for humans

  • 1997, Hong Kong

    • 18 humans infected, 6 died

    • H5N1 virus linked to outbreak in live bird market and area farms

  • 2003, the Netherlands

    • 83 confirmed cases in humans, 1 death

    • H7N7 strain

  • Swine are proposed “mixing vessel”

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Interspecies Transmission of Influenza A Viruses University, 2008

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Avian Influenza University, 2008in Animals


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Avian Influenza University, 2008

  • Incubation period: 3-14 days

  • Birds found dead

  • Drop in egg production

  • Neurological signs

  • Depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers

  • Combs swollen, cyanotic

  • Conjunctivitis and respiratory signs

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Post Mortem Lesions University, 2008

  • Lesions may be absent with sudden death

  • Severe congestion of the musculature

  • Dehydration

  • Subcutaneous edema of head and neck area

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Post Mortem Lesions University, 2008

  • Nasal and oralcavity discharge

  • Petechiae onserosal surfaces

  • Kidneys severely congested

  • Severe congestion of the conjunctivae

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Avian Influenza in Cats University, 2008

  • H5N1 avian influenza in Asia infected cats fed infected dead chickens

  • H5N1 experimentally

    • Respiratory

    • Systemic disease

    • Transmits cat to cat

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Sampling University, 2008

  • Before collecting or sending any samples, the proper authorities should be contacted

  • Samples should only be sent under secure conditions and to authorized laboratories to prevent the spread of the disease

  • HP AI samples may be zoonotic

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Diagnosis University, 2008

  • Clinically indistinguishablefrom virulent Newcastle Disease (END)

  • Suspect with:

    • Sudden death

    • Drop in egg production

    • Facial edema, cyanotic combs and wattles

    • Petechial hemorrhages

  • Virology and serology necessary for definitive diagnoses

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Differential Diagnosis University, 2008

  • Virulent Newcastle disease

  • Avian pneumovirus

  • Infectious laryngotracheitis

  • Infectious bronchitis

  • Chlamydia

  • Mycoplasma

  • Acute bacterial diseases

    • Fowl cholera, E. coli infection

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Diagnosis University, 2008

  • Laboratory Tests

    • HP AI is usually diagnosed by virus isolation

  • Presence of virus confirmed by

    • AGID

    • ELISA

    • RT-PCR

  • Serology may be helpful

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Treatment University, 2008

  • No specific treatment

  • Supportive care and antibiotics for secondary infections

  • Antivirals (amantadine) effective in reducing mortality

    • Not approved in food animals

    • Results in resistant viruses

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Avian Influenza University, 2008in Humans


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Clinical Signs in Humans University, 2008

  • 1997: Hong Kong (H5N1)

    • Fever, respiratory, vomiting, diarrhea, pain

    • Fatal cases: severe bilateral pneumonia, liver dysfunction, renal failure, septic shock

  • 1979: MP AI in harbor seals (H7N7)

    • Conjunctivitis

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Clinical Signs in Humans University, 2008

  • 2003: Netherlands (H7N7)

    • Conjunctivitis

    • Mild influenza or respiratory symptoms

    • Fatal case: Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Avian Influenza in Humans University, 2008

  • Risk is low

  • Strains vary in abilityto infect humans

  • Close contact with infected birds

    • High occupational exposure,cultural practices may increase risk

  • April 2008: 31 cases, 24 deaths

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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H5N1 AI in Poultry, Birds University, 2008since 2003

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Prevention and Control University, 2008


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Recommended Actions University, 2008

  • Notification of Authorities

    • Federal:Area Veterinarian in Charge (AVIC)

      • www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/area_offices.htm

    • State veterinarian

      • www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/sregs/official.htm

  • Quarantine

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Recommended Actions University, 2008

  • Confirmatory diagnosis

  • Depopulation may occur

    • Infected premises

    • Contact-exposed premises

    • Contiguous premises

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Control and Eradication University, 2008

  • Eliminate insects and mice

  • Depopulate flock and destroy carcasses

  • Remove manure down to bare concrete

  • High pressure spray to clean equipment and surfaces

  • Spray with residual disinfectant

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


Prevention l.jpg
Prevention University, 2008

  • Appropriate biosecurity

    • Control human traffic

    • Introduction of new birds into flock

    • Avoid open range rearing in waterfowl prevalent areas

  • Education of the poultry industry

  • Prompt response to MP AI outbreaks

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Vaccination of Poultry University, 2008

  • Emergency situations

    • Preserve breeding stock

  • Vaccines

    • Killed and fowl-pox vectored

    • DIVA – Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals

  • US Vaccine bank with 40 mil doses

    • 20 million for H5

    • 20 million for H7

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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USDA Prevention Activities University, 2008

  • Import restrictions

    • No live birds or bird products from infected countries

  • Increasing surveillance of wild birds

  • National H5 and H7 control program

  • Training for disease recognition

  • Improving diagnostics for rapid detection

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Protection of Humans from University, 2008H5N1 Avian Influenza

q

q

AI ResponsePlan

U.S. Border

q

q

Proper food handling and preparation

q

Surveillance

q

Food Safety Inspection Service

Biosecurity

q

Avoid contact with poultry

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Prevention: Humans University, 2008

  • Personal Protective Equipment

    • Gloves, masks

    • If working with poultry or wild birds

  • Vaccine

    • April 17, 2007

      • US FDA approved an avian influenza vaccine for humans

      • Not commercially available

      • Part of National Strategic Stockpile

        • For distribution during public health emergency

  • Antivirals

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Additional Resources University, 2008


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For More Information University, 2008

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    • http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/

  • World Health Organization (WHO)

    • http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/

  • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)

    • www.oie.int

  • Center for Food Security and Public Health

    • www.cfsph.iastate.edu

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Acknowledgments University, 2008

Development of this presentationwas funded by grants from

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division, and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardshipto the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.

Contributing Authors: Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Katie Steneroden, DVM, MPH; Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD; Radford Davis, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Bindy Comito Sornsin, BS.

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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