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THE FLY THAT WOULD BE KING. Glossina. African Sleeping Sickness. 300-500,000. African trypanosomiasis Trypomastigote morphology. Salivarian trypanosome groups. Trypanosoma vivax – Old and New World of large mammals – Mechanical transmission using many vectors

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African trypanosomiasis trypomastigote morphology l.jpg
African trypanosomiasisTrypomastigote morphology


Salivarian trypanosome groups l.jpg
Salivarian trypanosome groups

Trypanosoma vivax – Old and New World of large mammals –

Mechanical transmission using many vectors

Trypanosoma congolense – Old World of large mammals–

Mouthpart development in Glossina

Trypanosoma brucei/evansi –

brucei group includes: T. brucei brucei –nagana in cattle

T. brucei gambiense – chronic or West

African sleeping sickness

T. brucei rhodesiense – acute or East

African sleeping sickness

All have full development in Glossina

evansi group includes: T. evansi – mechanical transmission in

many vectors including

vampire bats

T. equinum – mechanically transmitted

by horse flies

T. equiperdum – sexually transmitted


Trypanosoma life cycle l.jpg
Trypanosoma Life Cycle





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African Ecology and Vector Distribution

Glossina palpalis group

Glossina palpalis group

Glossina morsitans group


Glossina life cycle l.jpg
Glossina – Life Cycle

8 – 9 days

6(male) –

14(female) weeks

4 – 5 weeks


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Glossina - Life Cycle (cont.)


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Natural Reservoir Hosts

Thompson’s gazelle

Impala

Oryx

Warthog


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Domesticated Reservoir Hosts

N’dama

Zebu

Warthogs








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African trypanosomiasisTreatment

Suramin - Pentamidine

(early)

Melarsoprol

(late)

DFMO

Aventis Pharm & WHO



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Africa Grassland burning

Tanzania

Zambezi River



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