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The History of Chronic Wasting Disease. Dr. Trent Bollinger, CCWHC One World, One Health Symposium Sept. 29, 2004. Spongiform encephalopathies.

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The History of Chronic Wasting Disease

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The history of chronic wasting disease l.jpg

The History of Chronic Wasting Disease

Dr. Trent Bollinger, CCWHC

One World, One Health Symposium

Sept. 29, 2004


Spongiform encephalopathies l.jpg

Spongiform encephalopathies

  • CWD is classified as a TSEs similar to scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), kuru, transmissible mink encephalopathy, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)


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PrPSc

PrPC

Prusiner, S. B. 1999. An introduction to prion biology and diseases.

Pages 1-66 in S. B. Prusiner, editor. Prion Biology and Diseases.

Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Springs Harbor, New York.


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Prion: protein infectious agent

Composed of PrPSc


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Two ways in which

spongiform encephalopathies

develop

PrPSc

2) PrPSc transmitted

to new host

+/- Protein X

PrPC

PrPSc

PrPC

PrPSc

PrPSc

  • Spontaneous

  • conversion

PrPSc

PrPC

PrPSc

PrPSc

+/- Protein X

PrPC

PrPSc

+/- Protein X


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PrPSc

PrPSc

PrPc

“ Species barrier”

+

X

Species/Individual A

slow

+

Species/Individual B

fast

+

Species/Individual C


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Sheep Natural Scrapie

13 months

Mice 1st passage

6 m

Mice 2nd passage

4 m

Mice 3rd passage

4.5 m

Mice 4th passage

5 m

Mice 5th passage

PrPSc

moPrPC

+

moPrPSc

moPrPSc

moPrPC

+

moPrPSc


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X

Mule deer -CWD

hamsters

4 -6 m

17 - 21 months

8 m

5 m

Ferrets

CWD

Ferrets

CWD

Types of species susceptible to a prion isolate can

be altered by transmission of prions to other species

Bartz, et al, 1998


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Raymond et al, 2000 The EMBO Journal Vol 19 (17) p.4425


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Raymond et al, 2000 The EMBO Journal Vol 19 (17) p.4425


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Methods of transmission

  • Direct inoculation

    • Experimental exposure

    • Iatrogenic exposure of humans to CJD

    • Vaccine for louping ill in sheep contaminated with scrapie prion

  • Ingestion

    • Experimental exposure

    • BSE: sheep scrapie to cattle and then cattle to cattle

    • Kuru in humans

    • vCJD in humans

  • Direct animal to animal spread

    • Scrapie in sheep

    • CWD in deer and elk


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Chronic wasting disease

  • Disease of mule deer, black-tailed deer, white-tailed deer and elk


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History of CWD

  • First recognized as a clinical entity in the late 1960s in captive mule deer and elk in Colorado and Wyoming; confirmed as a TSE in late 1970s


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  • Estimated overall prevalence in endemic areas of Colorado and Wyoming is 4.9% in mule deer, 2.1 % in white-tailed deer and 0.5% in elk.

Miller et al, 2000


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