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The Economy, Education, Countryside and Family Life of China - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Economy, Education, Countryside and Family Life of China. China Highlights 2010-03-11. China ’ s Economy. Third largest in the world after the USA and Japan (largest within 10 years). GDP 30 trillion yuan / 4.4 trillion USD. Annual growth of 8-9% (despite global slowdown).

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The Economy, Education, Countryside and Family Life of China

China Highlights


China’s Economy

  • Third largest in the world after the USA and Japan (largest within 10 years).

  • GDP 30 trillion yuan/ 4.4 trillion USD.

  • Annual growth of 8-9% (despite global slowdown).

  • Fastest growing major economy for the last 30 years.

China’s Economy

  • Primary Sector (agriculture, mining, fishing): 3.4 trillion yuan, growth 5.5%

  • Secondary Sector (manufacture, processing): 14.6 trillion yuan, growth 9.3%

  • Tertiary Sector (service industries): 12.0 trillion yuan, growth 9.5%

Average Income

  • Average income nationwide9,400 RMB or 1,400 USD.

  • Average income in the cities and larger towns 15,800 RMB or 2,300 USD.

  • Average income in the villages 4,700 RMB or 700 USD.

Urban-Rural Monthly Income Comparison for China's Provincial Level Regions (2008)

  • Data is an average of "incomes", i.e. those without an income (e.g. children, housewives, retired) are not factored in.

Government Insurance (taken from companies or individual salaries)

  • 20% Medical Insurance,

  • 10% Providing for the Elderly Insurance

  • 10%-12% Public Accumulated Housing Fund

  • 2% Unemployment Insurance

  • Work Related Injury Insurance – different rates for different industries.

Income Tax

  • The first 2000 RMB earned is tax free.

The Chinese Countryside

  • There’s a big difference in income between city and country.

  • 58% of China’s population live in the countryside – 766,000,000 people

  • Population density (139/km2) (360/sq mi)

  • 1/3 land populated (true density x3!)

  • 15% arable, 34% pasture, 14% forest, 28% desert

  • 58% mountains, 35% plains and basins

The Chinese Countryside

  • Vast, varied, much less developed than the urban areas.

  • Only 10-15% of land suitable for cultivation.

  • 300M farm workers.

  • 300M moved to the cities in the last 30 years.

  • 300M to move to the cities in the next 30 years.

  • Who will farm?

  • 200M pop. increase in the next 30 years.


  • World’s largest producer of rice 900M tonnes (India 2nd: 125 M tonnes)

  • Wheat, maize, tobacco, soybeans, peanuts, cotton

China’s Poor

  • 10.8% of Chinese – 143,000,000 – live on less than 1 USD/day.

  • Most are in the country, especially in the less accessible mountain areas where the minorities live.

  • China has many policies to look after its minorities and rural poor: leniency in the one child policy, access to education, government grants and poverty relief, etc.

China’s Minorities

  • China is 92% Han and there are 55 minorities including

  • Zhuang (16M or 1.2%), Manchu (10 million or 0.86%), Uyghur (9 million or 0.79%), Hui (9 million or 0.79%), Miao (8 million or 0.72%), Yi (7 million or 0.65%), Tujia (5.75 million or 0.62%), Mongols (5 million or 0.47%), Tibetan (5 million or 0.44%), Buyi (3 million or 0.26%), and Korean (2 million or 0.15%).

Family Planning

  • The Chinese Government limit children to one per family by a system of fines and benefits.

  • This is different for minorities:

  • Zhuang families in the countryside are allowed two children.

  • Smaller minorities have no limits.

Rural medical insurance

  • For 10 RMB a year country-dwellers can have 70% off “normal” medical treatment.

Migrant Workers

  • 140 million fill the train network heading home during the Chinese New Year holiday period.

  • 57% get their jobs based on contacts such as friends, relatives, and neighbors.

  • 45% between the ages of 16 and 25

  • Only 16% are over 40.

  • Nearly two-thirds of all migrants were male.

  • Roughly 83% had nine years of education or less.

Education in China

  • 9 years compulsory education policy: ages 7-16 attend school.

  • Nursery School 2-7 (4 classes)

  • Primary School 7-13 (6 years)

  • Junior Middle School 13-16 (3 years)

  • Upper Middle School 16-19 (3 years)

  • University 19-23+ (4 years for a degree)

  • Vocational Schools 16+ (1 year and other courses)

Education in China

  • Education is free from primary school to junior middle school.

  • The extra expenses of stationery and board are still a problem for poorer families.

  • Upper middle school and university or vocational school fees are a major expense for most families

Education in China

  • Regimented structure – similar throughout the country.

  • National anthem played and sung every morning.

  • Flag raising ceremonies and daily exercises from middle school.

  • Military marching instruction at the beginning of university.

  • There is the option to join in Communist Party patriotic activities from primary school.

  • University students can become party members.

Nursery Schools

  • Large classes of maybe 30 children.

  • Split into 4 “years”

  • “Small class” those too young to do anything but play and be entertained.

  • “Middle class” 4-5. Songs, games.

  • “Big class” 5-6. Writing. Numbers

  • “Pre-study” 6-7. Basic English and Math.

Nursery Schools

  • Nursery schools rare in village areas.

  • Children stay at home and play until old enough to attend primary school.

  • Mostly young female teachers with junior middle school education.

  • Run like businesses.

  • Convenient place to leave children if both parents have to work.

  • Nursery Schools cost different amounts depending on how often parents pick their children up: 200 every day, 500 once a month.

Primary School

  • Often include a pre-school class as a cheap alternative to nursery school, in the countryside particularly.

  • Countryside Primary Schools often have much lower standards of education than city schools.

  • In the countryside maybe only one out of a class of 30 passes the middle school entrance exam.

  • This means they can’t attend a “better” middle school, but must attend a middle school.

  • In the city, all would be expected to pass.

Junior Middle Schools

  • Large class sizes: 50-60.

  • Countryside: one junior middle school per district.

  • Cities: Middle schools are numbered the 1st, the 2nd, etc.

  • Boarding. Most children live at school.

Upper Middle Schools

  • High pressure years of studying to pass university entry exams.

  • Only major countryside towns have an upper middle school, often divided from the junior middle school.

  • In the city middle schools are usually combined.

Chinese Universities

  • Only found in prefecture level cities.

  • A “Normal University” in China is a university specializing in producing teachers.

  • Other Universities are named after their speacialisms: Electrics, Technology, Computing, Tourism, etc.

  • A city will usually have one large university and several smaller institutions which offer diplomas as well as degrees.

  • Major cities have several large universities.

Vocational Schools

  • Often go under the title universities, but offer vocational courses primarily.

  • These are often an option after junior middle school if a practical career is preferred.

  • Universities and schools have huge areas of student accommodation.

  • Cheap food outlets and rooms for rent spring up in the areas around the universities to cater for the students.

Chinese Families

  • Family is very important in China.

  • Families are closer and there is greater responsibility towards one’s family than in the West.

  • There is lots of lending money between relatives.

Family Relationships

  • People are often addressed by their family relationships rather than names in a family context and in society.

  • There are different names for just about every family relationship in China.

  • Being older or younger is very important.

  • Didi = younger brother

  • Gege = older brother

  • Meimei = younger sister

  • Jiejie = older sister

Family Relationships

  • Grandfather

  • Father’s father = yeye

  • Mother’s father = waigong

  • Grandmother

  • Father’s mother = nainai

  • Mother’s mother = waipo

Family Relationships

  • Uncle

  • Father’s older brother = bobo

  • Father’s younger brother = shushu

  • Mother’s brother = jiujiu

  • Aunt

  • Father’s sister = gugu

  • Mother’s sister = ayi

Elderly relatives

  • Families are expected to respect and look after their elderly relatives.

  • Elderly relatives often look after young children while their parents are at work.

  • Three generations in one house is common.

  • The one child policy means China has an aging population.

  • If current trends continue Chinese over 60 will increase from 10% to 25% by 2040.

Parent Pressure

  • Especially with the one child policy, many only children receive a lot of pressure and attention focused on them from their parents.

  • Pressure to do well academically and provide for one’s immediate family is very strong.

Family Reunions

  • The Spring Festival or Chinese New Year (in January or February)

  • The Mid-Autumn Festival when mooncakes are consumed (in September or October)

  • Particulary in the countryside, tomb cleaning in early April (Qingming), when worshiping of dead relatives often takes place.

  • There is a popular belief that dead relatives’ spirits have the power to bless or curse.

  • Weddings or new baby celebrations are also big get-togethers.

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