Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study in California . UCLA Gambling Studies Program. Overview. Background Conceptual framework Research questions and hypotheses Methods Results Implications Limitations Conclusion. Background: Definition and Criteria.
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UCLA Gambling Studies Program
Prevalence in California:
¼ PaGs and PrGs smoke daily
alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, etc.
anxiety, depression, antisocial personality disorder etc.
Stress-related physical impairment
hypertension, heart disease, etc.
Barriers to seeking help
Embarrassment and denial of the gambling issues; and mistrust of the effectiveness of treatments
⇨National estimate: < 3% of PrGs seek treatment
A 24-hour, toll-free service for PrGs and PaGs is available
⇨4/5 CA adults (2/3 PrGs, 1/2PaGs) are not aware of this service
Bensinger DuPont and Associates (BDA) implemented the C2C program
- Initial Session: Baseline Assessment
- Session 1 (W1): Assign homework
- Session 2 (W2): Support client’s plan of change, educate about course of pathological gambling
- Session 3 (W4 ): Motivate client for recovery
- Session 4 (W8): Motivate client for recovery
- Session 5 (W12): Review client’s progress, end session
No intention to quit gambling within the next 6 months
The Transtheoretical Model has been successfully applied to motivate cessation of gambling among PaGs.
Intention to quit gambling within the next 6 months
Intention to quit gambling within the next 30 days and has taken some behavioral steps in this direction
Has quitted gambling for less than 6 months
Has quitted gambling behavior for more than 6 months
Are pathological gamblers who completed the C2C likely to cease or reduce the frequency of gambling?
- 18 years old or older
- Ability to read and write English at an 8th grade level
- Meet DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling
(NODS score >5)
- Have gambled within 4 weeks of screening
- Have a reliable telephone number
- Currently enrolled in a gambling treatment program
- Meet criteria for clinically significant psychiatric disorder that would impair judgment or medical decision-making capacity
- NODS score
- Hours of gambling (W12)
- Amount of money allotted for gambling (W12)
- Gambling preference
- Frequency, hours of gambling
- Family gambling history
- Reason of gambling
- Smoking, drinking habit
- Self-rated health and QOL
- First gambling age
- Problem gambling starting age
- Self goal (reduce/quit)
- Money started (W12)
- gambling wins and loses
Attrition Rate: 45.45%
Initial Interview: 33/109
SD=11.57, Range= 27-65
Male=50%, Female: 50%
Primary Gambling Preference:
- Nevada Casinos => 1 (5.6%)
- Indian Casinos => 15 (83.3%)
- Card Rooms => 1 (5.6%)
- Sports betting => 1 (5.6%)
- African American => 1 (5.6%)
- Asian American => 3 (16.7%)
- Caucasian => 6 (33.3%)
- Latino => 6 (33.3%)
- Other => 2 (11.1%)Results: Sample Demographics
Table 1. Comparison of Initial and 12-week Assessment
*Statistically significant (p < .05) as tested by Paired-sample t-test
**Statistically significant (p < .001) as tested by Paired-sample t-test
This study demonstrated that offering telephone help-line program may help pathological gamblers, who are in the Preparation or Action stages of change, to reduce or maintain cessation of gambling in terms ofNODS score and the number of hours spent gambling.
- Does not necessarily represent PrGs
- Randomized controlled studies are needed
- Need to evaluate the accuracy of self-report
- Other factors may affect their behavior (e.g. relapse due to ambivalent characteristics of gambling addiction)
We, the UCLA Gambling Studies Program, gratefully acknowledge the support of this study by Ms.Isabelle Duguay fromBensinger DuPont and Associates.
This program was funded by the California Alcohol and Drug Programs, Office of Problem Gambling.