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Sound. Pitch: (high and low) Corresponds to size! Dynamics: (loud, soft) Forte ( f) Mezzo Forte ( mf) Mezzo Piano ( mp) Piano ( p) Timbre/Tone Color: (bright, dark, mellow, harsh, etc.) Abstract descriptions for what you are hearing. Sound. Standard Choral Voices

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sound

Sound

Pitch: (high and low)

Corresponds to size!

Dynamics: (loud, soft)

Forte (f)

Mezzo Forte (mf)

Mezzo Piano (mp)

Piano (p)

Timbre/Tone Color: (bright, dark, mellow, harsh, etc.)

Abstract descriptions for what you are hearing

sound2

Sound

Standard Choral Voices

soprano, alto, tenor, bass

Standard Orchestra Instrumentation

String (violin, viola, cello, bass)

Woodwind (flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon)

Brass (trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba)

Percussion (timpani, drums, mallet keyboards)

Other

Keyboard (piano, organ, harpsichord)

Jazz Instruments (saxophone, drumset)

rhythm and melody
Rhythm and Melody
  • Beat (pulse)

- Meter (duple, triple)

- Tempo (fast, slow)

  • Melody:
    • Theme (main idea)
  • Musical terms to describe:
    • Articulation (legato, staccato)
    • Accents
    • Syncopation
harmony
Harmony
  • Consonance & Dissonance
    • A relationship between two notes (interval) is either stable or unstable
    • Unstable (dissonant) intervals resolve to stable (consonant) intervals
slide5
Key
  • Tonal:
    • Called “functional”
    • Every chord has a function: going back to the Tonal Center
    • Can be Major or minor scale
  • Atonal
    • Chromatic, no tonal scale

Music history is all about moving from functional tonality towards Atonality!

texture
Texture
  • Texture
    • Monophonic (single line)
    • Homophonic (one line, accompanied)
    • Polyphonic (2 or more equal lines)
slide7

Form

  • The shape and structure of a piece of music
  • Most music is divided into sections
    • New sections defined by harmony and/or melody
    • Older musical ideas return often
    • Some large pieces are broken into movements, which are also broken into sections
genre
Genre
  • The Form and/or instrumentation defines the genre of a piece of music:
  • Symphony (Orchestra)
  • Concerto (Soloist with orchestra)
  • Chamber Music (Small ensemble)
    • String Quartet
    • Woodwind Quintet
    • Brass Quintet
  • Sonata (Solo instrumental music)
  • Art Song (Solo voice with piano)
  • Opera (Music with vocal storytelling <staged>)
  • Ballet (Music with dancing)
historical eras
Historical Eras
  • Middle Ages (450-1450)
  • Renaissance (1450-1600)
  • Baroque (1600-1750)
  • Classical (1750-1800ish)
  • Romantic (1800-1900)
  • 20th Century (1900-2000)

- Often divided into two halves (1900-1945)

- 1945-present = modern music

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