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Rock Structures. Mt. St. Helens, October 2004. Igneous Structures: Plutons, Volcanoes, & Lava Flows (Oh, My!). Plutons. Name this Igneous Feature…. Igneous Dike. Plutonic Structures. Xenoliths. Source: William E. Ferguson. Why do we find Plutons at the Surface?. Uplift & Erosion.

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Rock structures l.jpg

Rock Structures

Mt. St. Helens, October 2004


Igneous structures plutons volcanoes lava flows oh my l.jpg
Igneous Structures:Plutons, Volcanoes, & Lava Flows (Oh, My!)




Plutonic structures l.jpg
Plutonic Structures

Xenoliths

Source:William E. Ferguson


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Why do we find Plutons at the Surface?

Uplift & Erosion

Sierra Nevada Mountains Batholith, California


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Volcanic Structures

Mafic

vs.

Intermediate/Felsic


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Mafic Eruptions:Passive Lava Flows














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Felsic Eruptions:Explosive Ash and Thick Lava Flows





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Ash-Flow Caldera:Crater Lake, Oregon





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Bedding (1-300 cm)

Stratafication

Laminations (<1 cm)

Massive Strata (>300 cm)


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Inter-Bed Structures(within strata)

  • Graded Beds

  • Cross Beds

  • Dropstones

Outcrop of turbidites, Carboniferous, northwestern China.


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Graded BedsDeath Valley, CA


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Cross BedsZion National Park, UT


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Dropstones

Norway


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Intra-Bed Structures(on the surface of strata)

  • Ripple Marks

  • Mudcracks

  • Raindrop Impressions



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MudcracksGlacier National Park, MT




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Trace Fossils

Coprolites

Miocene Mammal (WA)

Worm Burrows: Middle Silurian, Grimsby Formation, Hamilton, Ontario


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