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Professionals in Health. Health career roles and educational requirements. Physicians. Involved with the treatment and prevention of human disease. Primary role is diagnosing human disease and formulating a treatment plan. Physician Classifications.

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Professionals in Health

Health career roles and educational requirements


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Physicians

  • Involved with the treatment and prevention of human disease. Primary role is diagnosing human disease and formulating a treatment plan.


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Physician Classifications

  • MD Doctor of Medicine- general practitioners or specialists. Focus: medicine and/or surgical treatments

  • DO Doctor of Osteopathy- most are general practitioners. Focus: musculoskeletal system.

  • Both require 4 yrs premed, 4 yrs med, 3 yrs residency.


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Physician Specialties

  • Family Physician- involved with care of the total patient. Handles most illnesses.

  • General Practitioner- similar to family practitioner. Title usually for DO’s.

  • Neurologists- Treats disorders of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Gynecologists- Health care and treatment of reproductive system of women.

  • Obstetricians- work with women throughout pregnancy, delivery, and care after delivery.


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Pathologists- study characteristics, causes and progression of disease. Order and perform lab tests, autopsies, run blood banks, etc.

  • Emergency Medicine- Treat acute illnesses and emergencies


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Allergists- treat conditions and illnesses caused by allergies or related to immune system

  • Otolaryngologists- Ear, nose and throat (ENT) and the treatment of diseases involving the ear, nose or throat. Perform related surgeries.


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Surgeons- operates to treat disease, repair injuries or correct deformities, and to improve general health

  • Psychiatrists- Assist patient in the recovery of mental illness


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Radiologists- diagnose and treat illness by use of X ray and radioactive materials.

  • Pediatricians- care for children from birth through adolescence.


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Ophthalmologists- treat disease and injuries of the eye. Prescribe corrective lenses and perform surgery.

  • Dermatologists-Treat infections, growths and injury to the skin.


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Physician Specialists continued

  • Anesthesiologists- Use drugs and gases to render patients unconscious during surgery. Assist patients with pain management.

  • Cardiologists- Treat heart disease


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Dental

  • Dentists- Diagnose and treat problems with teeth and tissues of the mouth. Either DDS (Doctor of Dental Surgery) or DMD (Doctor of Medical Dentistry)


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Dentists- Education and Specialties

  • Education: 4 yrs predental, 4 yrs dental

  • General Practitioners- handle wide variety of dental needs

  • Orthodontists- straighten teeth


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Dental Specialties continued

  • Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons- operate on mouth and jaws

  • Pediatric Dentists- Dentists for children

  • Periodontists- Treat gums


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Dental Specialists continued

  • Prosthodontists- make artificial teeth or dentures

  • Endodontists- perform root canals


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Dental Hygienists

  • Provide preventive dental care. Teach patients to have good oral hygiene. Scale and polish teeth, explain relationship between diet, smoking and oral health.

    • Education- 2 yrs


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Dental Assistants

  • Works with the dentist while the dentist is examining and treating the patient.

    • Make patients comfortable in the chair

    • Prepare them for treatment

    • Obtain dental records

    • Hand dentists the instruments and materials


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Dental Assistants continued

  • Make impressions

  • Take radiographs

  • Give oral health instruction

  • Prepare instruments for sterilization

  • Use suction to keep mouth clean during exams and treatments

  • Education- 1 year


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Dental Technologist

  • Makes dental prosthetics as prescribed by a dentist

  • Such as: Crowns and Bridges, Orthodontic appliances, Full Dentures and Partial Dentures and Ceramics


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Registered Nurses

  • Care for sick and injured

  • Help people stay well

  • Concerned with the whole person

  • Provide physical, mental and emotional needs


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Registered Nurses continued

  • Observe, record and assess symptoms, reactions and progress

  • Administer medications

  • Assist in convalescence and rehabilitation

  • Instruct patients and families in proper care

  • Help individuals and groups take steps to improve health


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4 Levels of Education for Registered Nurses

  • A.D.N- Associate’s degree in nursing. 2 year degree

  • BSN- Bachelor of Science degree in nursing- 4 year degree


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4 Levels continued

  • MSN- Master of Science Degree in nursing. Focuses on practice, management, education- usually 2 years

  • Ph.D.- Doctorate- focus on research, education, or administration- usually 2 years


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Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN)

  • Care for the sick, injured, convalescing, handicapped

  • Under the direction of an RN or physician.

  • Take and record vital signs,

  • Change dressings


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LPN continued

  • Administer medications

  • Change dressings

  • Insert catheters

  • Education- 1 year


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Pharmacists

  • Advise health professionals and the public on proper selection and use of medications


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Pharmacists continued

  • Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians

  • Education- 6 years for doctorate in pharmacy- PharmD


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Dieticians (Nutritionists)

  • Apply basic principles of nutrition to food selection and meal preparations.


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Dieticians (Nutritionists) continued

  • Counsel individuals and groups

  • Setup and supervise food service systems for institutions, such as schools, hospitals etc.

  • Promote sound eating habits through education and research

  • Education-4 years


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Dietary Technicians

  • Works as a member of the food services health team and under the direction of a dietician.

  • Supervise and support staff

  • Monitor cost and quality

  • Counsels and develops nutritional plans

  • Education- 1 year


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Optometry

  • Optometrists- Provides vision care, prescribes corrective lenses and dispenses eyewear.

  • Education- 4 years preoptometry, 4 years optometrics


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Optometry continued

  • Ophthalmologists- a physician who specializes in medical diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of vision disorders, especially disease and injuries to the eye.


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Optometry continued

  • Dispensing Opticians- Order the necessary ophthalmic lab work, help customer select lens, frames, adjust eyeglasses.

    • Education-1-2 years


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Physician Assistant

  • Evolved in the 1960’s due to the shortage of physicians at the time.


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Physician Assistant continued

  • Provides routine diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health care services under the direction of a physician.

  • Take medical histories

  • Examine

  • Order and interpret lab tests and X rays

  • Make preliminary diagnoses


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Physician Assistant continued

  • Teach patients

  • Education- 4 years, then 4 years of additional studies


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Speech/Language Pathologists

  • Assess and treat persons experiencing speech or language problems resulting from total or partial hearing loss, brain injury, cerebral palsy, cleft palate, voice pathology, mental retardation, faulty learning, emotional problems, foreign dialects.

  • Education- 4 yrs plus masters program


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EMT-Paramedics

  • Recognize, assess & manage medical emergencies of acutely ill or injured persons in the pre-hospital setting under the direction of a physician.

  • Education 1-2 yrs


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Radiography

  • Radiologists- physicians who specialize in interpretation of radiographs.


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Radiography continued

  • Radiographers- produce x ray films of all parts of the human body for use in diagnosing medical problems. Prepare patient for exam.

    • Education 1-2 yrs.


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Sonographers

  • Use nonionizing equipment to transmit sound waves at high frequencies into the patient’s body, then collect reflected echoes to form an image.


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Sonographer continued

  • The image is viewed on the screen, recorded and can be printed. It is interpreted by the physician

  • Education- 1-2yrs


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Social Workers

  • Health care social workers are responsible for helping patients and families cope with problems resulting from severe or long term Illness, recovery, and rehab.

  • Education-4 yrs plus master’s degree


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Psychologists

  • Have a doctorate in psychology

  • Interview people and administer psychological tests.

  • Provide counseling and therapy to patients with emotional or adjustment problems in a variety of settings.

  • Education- 8 yrs


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Respiratory Therapists

  • Evaluate, treat and care for patients with breathing disorders.

  • Work under the direction of a physician.

  • Education: 2 yrs


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Physical Therapists

  • Plan, organize and administer treatment to restore functional mobility, relieve pain, and prevent or limit permanent disability.

  • Education- 4yrs plus master’s degree.


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Physical Therapy Assistants

  • Work under the direction of the physical therapist

  • Carry out the plan as developed by the physical therapist

  • Communicate the patient progress toward the goal

  • Education- 2 years


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Occupational Therapists

  • Treat people with mental, physical, developmental or emotional disabilities.

  • Help individuals develop or maintain daily living skills and to cope with the physical and emotional aspects of disability.

  • Education-4 yrs


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Occupational Therapy Assistants

  • Work under the direction of the occupational therapists.

  • Carry out the plan developed by the OT

  • Communicate the patient progress towards the goals

  • Education- 2 years


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Electroneurodiagnostic Technologist

  • Performs tests measuring the functions of the brain including:

  • EEG

  • Evoked potential studies

  • Sleep studies

  • Brain wave mapping


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Electroneurodiagnostic Technologist continued

  • The tests help diagnose neurological diseases that assists the physician in establishing the extent to brain injuries

  • Education- 1-2 yrs


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Surgical Technologists

  • Work under the supervision of the surgeon

  • Help set up the OR

  • May prepare patients for surgery

  • Transport patients

  • Education 1-2 yrs


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Medical Assistants

  • Help physicians examine and treat patients

  • Perform routine lab procedures

  • Perform business procedures to keep offices running smoothly

  • Education- 1-2 yrs


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Registered Health Information Administrator (RHIA)

  • Formerly called Medical Record Librarians

    • develop systems for documenting, storing and retrieving medical information

    • Legal and legislative resource

      • HIPAA Privacy Rule

      • Medicare Billing Guidelines

      • Medical Necessity Regulations

      • More…


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Registered Health Information Technician (RHIT)

  • Serve as technical assistants to the RHIA, carrying out many technical activities within the record.

    • Coding for reimbursement

    • Abstracting data for research studies

      • Cancer

      • Birth defects

    • Ensure patient privacy

    • Release of PHI to “authorized” individuals


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Health Service Administration

  • Plan, organize and coordinate health care delivery

  • Work in hospitals, nursing homes, home health agencies, rehab, HMO’s

  • Education- 2-4yrs


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MEDICAL CODING

  • individuals who collect, analyze and manage information

  • within the health care industry by transforming medical diagnoses and

  • procedures into numbers or codes for healthcare reimbursement.


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MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTION

  • Specialists in medical language and health care

  • documentation. They interpret and transcribe dictation from physicians and other health

  • care professionals. They also provide documentation analysis for readability, correctness

  • and sensibility.


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COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE SERVICES:

  • Group of diverse medical and health care systems and practices and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine.

  • Individuals involved in this area of healthcare may be in alternative medical systems, mind-body interventions, biologically-based treatments, manipulative and body-based methods, and energy therapies.


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