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Chapter 9: Menu Planning and Food Safety in Early Childhood Education Environments PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Chapter 9: Menu Planning and Food Safety in Early Childhood Education Environments. Nutritional Policies Needed. Five million children eat in child care settings every day Early childhood education environments often do not meet the nutritional needs of children

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Chapter 9: Menu Planning and Food Safety in Early Childhood Education Environments

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Chapter 9 menu planning and food safety in early childhood education environments l.jpg

Chapter 9: Menu Planning and Food Safety in Early Childhood Education Environments

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Nutritional Policies Needed

  • Five million children eat in child care settings every day

  • Early childhood education environments often do not meet the nutritional needs of children

  • About 2/3 of food preparers have no knowledge of nutrition or food sanitation and safety

  • ADA recommends 2/3 of nutrition for full-time child be offered in early childhood education settings

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Nutritional Policies for:

  • Guidelines for food programs

  • Menu planning

  • Food sanitation and safety

  • Implications for teachers

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Guidelines for Food Programs

  • Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

  • Other programs

    • Food Distribution Program

    • Summer Food Service Program

    • School Milk Program

    • Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Guidelines for Food Programs (continued)

  • For children and families

    • WIC

    • Food Stamps

    • National School Lunch Program

    • School Breakfast Program

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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CACFP

  • Available to:

    • nonprofit licensed or approved public or private early childhood education centers

    • family child care homes that belong to a sponsoring agency, such as Red Cross

    • for-profit private programs that received funding through Title XX

  • 25,000 early childhood education centers

  • 126,400 family child care homes

  • 2.9 million children served daily

    • 2 meals and 1 snack

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Other Programs

  • USDA Food Distribution—members of CACFP automatically receive applications

  • Summer Food Service Program—school aged children in care over summer may make caregiver eligible

  • The School Milk Program is available to nonprofit private residential child care centers if they participate in no other federal food program

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Menu Planning for Early Childhood Education Environments—Building a Menu

  • Level One

    • Knowledge

      • children’s nutritional needs

      • developmental stages

      • dietary guidelines

      • MyPyramid Food Guidance System

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Menu Planning for Early Childhood Education Environments—Building a Menu (continued)

  • Level Two

    • Accessibility

      • cost

      • convenience

      • storage

      • culinary skills

      • economy

      • seasonal foods

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Menu Planning for Early Childhood Education Environments—Building a Menu (continued)

  • Level Three

    • Environment

      • goal of care

      • personal history

      • cultural diversity

      • perceptions of children’s food choices

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Menu Planning for Early Childhood Education Environments—Building a Menu (continued)

  • Considering the differences at every level, the caregiver can begin to plan the menu

    • All prejudices, preferences, perceptions and other barriers removed

    • Must have nutritional knowledge needed to plan balanced, healthy menus

    • Menu planning should occur with regularity

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Breakfast

  • USDA recommends 25% of RDI be offered

  • Critical meal—effects

    • helps cognition, strength, attitude, endurance

    • less likely to be obese

    • skipping can result in poor nutrition

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Breakfast (continued)

  • Should consist of minimum of

    • milk, bread or cereal, and fruit

      • Cold cereal fortified with iron is an easy way to increase consumption of carbohydrates and iron

    • can be optional or nontraditional foods

    • may be culturally driven

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Snacks

  • Should provide adequate nutrition

  • Should be served at sufficient intervals between meals

  • Good time for cultural diversity

  • Should consist of

    • milk or meat/meat alternate, and bread/grain or fruit

    • may be typical or nontraditional

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Lunches

  • Provide greatest nutrition in care

  • Should consist of milk, meat/meat alternative, fruits and or veggies (2 minimum), and a bread or grain

  • Often contain too much fat/saturated fats

    • Should consider cutting back on fat and offering greater variety

  • From home—less nutritional

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Children on Vegetarian Diets

  • Vegan—nuts, seeds, legumes, fruits, and vegetables

  • Lacto-vegetarian, in addition dairy products

  • Ovo-vegetarian, in addition egg products

  • Lacto-ovo vegetarian, in addition both dairy and egg products

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Children on Vegetarian Diets (continued)

  • Caregiver needs to understand what type of vegetarian the child is and how to provide the needs of the child in a balanced way

  • Can be a challenge, especially for vegan

    • Ask parents for suggestions and help

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Food Safety Early Childhood Education Environments

  • Important to prevent foodborne illness

  • Involves

    • food purchasing

    • food storage

    • handling

    • preparation/cooking

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Food Purchasing

  • Food = good quality, fresh, undamaged

  • Buy from reputable places

  • Buy by “sell by” or “use by” dates

  • Avoid fresh products that have been frozen/defrosted

  • Keep meats and poultry away from fresh foods

  • Buy perishables last, put away first

  • No dented cans

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Food Storage

  • Key to keeping food safe

    • Temperature control, labeling, and arrangement

    • Protect from contamination—insects and people

    • Proper temperature maintenance is critical

  • Refrigerated foods

    • Wrap meats, poultry, and fish well and label them

    • Refrigerated products = refrigerate immediately (see Table 9-5)

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Food Storage (continued)

  • Unrefrigerated foods

    • Store in clean, rodent-free areas

    • Have doors to cover storage

    • Keep 8 inches off the floor

    • Order of use is first in, first out

    • Nonperishables should be stored in airtight containers once opened

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Food Handling

  • Never handle food if you are ill or have infectious skin sores that cannot be covered

  • Preferable that food handler not be a diaper changer

  • Key to sanitation is good handwashing habits (accounts for 85% of foodborne illness)

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Food Handling (continued)

  • Use sanitary practices and healthy habits

  • Never thaw food at room temperature

  • Wear clean clothing covered by an apron

  • Should be certified food handler

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Cooking Foods

  • Use safe, sanitary and healthy practices (see Table 9-6)

  • Use thermometer to check proper temperatures

    • even with microwaved foods

  • If using crock pot, take precautions for protection

    • less than 2/3 full

    • small uniform pieces of meat

      • Check internal temperature (160°F)

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Realty Check—E. coli and Children

  • As many as 20,000 cases per year and children most vulnerable

    • Incidences have gone down 43% from 1996 to 2003

  • Found in rare or uncooked ground meat, unpasteurized fruit juices, alfalfa sprouts, dry-cured salami, lettuce, raw milk, fresh cheese curds, and game meat

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Realty Check—E. coli and Children (continued)

  • E. coli = Escherichia coli

    • Most abundant species of bacteria in our environment

    • Lives in intestines of humans and animals

      • Strains from animals are different and can be harmful to humans, especially E. coli 0157:H7

  • E. coli 0157:H7 has been infected with a strain of toxin-producing virus

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Realty Check—E. coli and Children (continued)

  • Most common place to find E. coli 0157:H7 is in ground beef

  • Preventative measures have been taken in the meat packing industry

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Realty Check—E. coli and Children (continued)

  • To prevent in early childhood education settings, cook all ground meat to a temperature of 160°F and other meats to 155°F

    • Avoid cross contamination

    • Wash all fruits and vegetables

    • Wash hands

    • Do not serve raw milk or unfiltered apple juice

    • Always handle diarrhea under strict universal hygiene conditions

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Implications for Teachers

  • Education

    • Use CACFP guidelines

    • Get training for food safety/sanitation

    • Know basics of nutrition

    • Teach children better nutrition

      • trying new foods, eating a variety of foods, and adding more fruits and vegetables

      • cook with children

      • field trips

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Implications for Teachers (continued)

  • For Families

    • Help parents—involve in menu planning

      • Share resources, provide information

  • Cultural Competence

    • Ask families to share recipes and information on foods of their culture

      • food restrictions, food preferences, setting

    • Have potluck dinners

    • Offer a variety of fruits and vegetables to help those less likely to get them at home

    • Provide resource information to families

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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Implications for Teachers (continued)

  • Supervision

    • Make sure guidelines followed for any food programs

    • Menu planning

    • Food safety

    • Observe children’s reaction to menus

© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning


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