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Neutrino astronomy with AMANDA and IceCube. Per Olof Hulth Stockholm University hulth@physto.se. Short summary of neutrinos for pedestrians. There are three different “families” of leptons Electron neutrino (  e ) and the electron (e - ) Muon neutrino (   ) and the muon ( - )

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Neutrino astronomy with amanda and icecube l.jpg

Neutrino astronomywithAMANDA and IceCube

Per Olof Hulth

Stockholm University

hulth@physto.se


Short summary of neutrinos for pedestrians l.jpg

Short summary of neutrinos for pedestrians

  • There are three different “families” of leptons

    • Electron neutrino (e) and the electron (e-)

    • Muon neutrino () and the muon (-)

    • Tau neutrino () and the tau (-)

  • The neutrinos penetrates huge amount of matter without being absorbed

    • E.g. a 1 MeV neutrino from the sun has an absorption length of 20 light years in lead!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Some neutrino numbers

  • The Sun sends every second out 200.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000 (2*1038) neutrinos

  • At Earth we receive about 40.000.000.000 neutrinos/cm2/second

  • From Big Bang we have 330 000 000 neutrinos/m3 (Energi 0.0004 eV) but only half a proton

  • 340 000 000 neutrinos are creataed in our body every day (40K)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Neutrinos from Supernova

  • When a star explodes 99% of the energy is emitted in neutrinos

  • A star exploded 1054. Today the Crab nebula

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Gamma astronomy

Space is nottransparent for High Energy Photons!

R. Svensson Zdziarski AA.Ap.J.349:415-28(1990)

Kneiski TM, Mannerheim K, Hartmann D.Ap.J. Submitted 2000)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Three open questions in Astrophysics

  • What is the missing dark matter in the Universe?

  • What is the origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic rays?

  • What is powering the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB)?

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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You need 20 times more matter to keep the system together than what is observed

DARK MATTER

!!!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Most popular model

  • New type of matter (WIMPs)

  • Supersymmetric particles from Big Bang

  • Neutralinos.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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WIMPs from Sun/Earth

Dark Matter search

Look for excess of neutrinos from centre of the Earth and the Sun!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Cosmic rays

proton

mesoner

muons

About 100 muons/m2sek

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Cosmic rays

Energies up to 50 Joules!

What is the process creating these particles???

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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A possible candidate for a source for cosmic rays

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Gamma Ray Bursts

Source 9 Billion light years away!

The sources of GRBs on cosmologic distances!

The most “violent” objects in the Universe

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Gamma Ray Bursts

  • Could be danger to be too close…

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Messengers of Astronomy

Only neutrinos cover the whole energy range

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Neutrino production

If protons are accelerated we expect about equal amount of gammas and neutrino!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Classes of Models

log(E2 Flux)

pp core AGN

p blazar jet

Top-Bottom

model

Various recent

models for

transient sources

GRB

(W&B)

3 6 9

log(E/GeV)

TeV PeV EeV

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Neutrino astronomy so far

  • Only two neutrino sources in space has been observed.

  • The solar neutrinos (Nobel price 2002)

  • Neutrinos from SN1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (180 000 light years)

  • Energy of neutrinos only 1-30 MeV

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Neutrino physics (again)

  • We have three types of neutrinos:

    • Electron neutrino ne

    • Muon neutrinonm

    • Tau neutrinon nt

E.g. Neutron decay :

neutron -> proton + e- + ne

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Neutrino interaction





< 1 degree

The muon can travel several km in e.g. ice

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Cherenkov radiation

A charged particle moving with the speed of light in the medium will generate a shock wave of light

q

cosq = 1/(nb)

b = v/c, n= refraction index

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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The AMANDA telescope at the

South Pole

  • Why the South Pole?

  • A 3000 meter thick glaciar

  • A scientific base with all infra structure

  • No fishes and no 40K

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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AMANDA

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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South Pole

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

Joakim Edsjö SU


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

Joakim Edsjö SU


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myon

neutrino

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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106 muons from cosmic rays/muon from neutrinos

!!!!

myon

Select only

muons from

below!!!!

neutrino

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Hot water heaters

-50 m

-55 C

-25 C

-2400 m

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

Joakim Edsjö SU


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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-840 m

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AMANDA

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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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AMANDA Event Signatures:Muons

DATA

CC muon neutrino

interactions  Muon tracks

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

nm + N  m + X


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Point Sources Amanda II (2000)

Skyplot is scrambled in

event time for blind analysis,

Plot has been released, and

results will be available soon.

Examples for a few candidates will

be given.

Equatorial coordinates:

declination vs. right ascension.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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-45

0

45

90

-90

AMANDA B10 and A-II:

some limits and projected sensitivity

10-13

m cm-2 s-1

AMANDA B10 average

Sensitivity for sel. soruces

Super-Kamiokande

To appear in ApJ:

astro-ph/0208006

10-14

A-II, limit on SS433

A-II, sensitivity on SS433

MACRO

10-15

SS433*

A-II, limit on Mrk 501

A-II projected sensitivity

Combined 97-02

Mrk501

(HEGRA 97, n/g=1)

Declination (deg)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Amanda Analysis activities

  • AMANDA-B10 1997 analysis at the end

  • AMANDA-B10 1999 analysis started

  • AMANDA-II 2000 filtering done, first analyses started

  • AMANDA-II 2001 online filtering continuously done

In order to do a “blind analysis” only 20% of the data is used for tuning cuts

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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IceCube!!

IceCube has been designed as a discovery instrument with improved:

telescope area

detection volume

energy measurement of secondary muons and electromagnetic showers

identification of neutrino flavor

angular resolution

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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The IceCube Collaboration

  • 11 European, 1 Japanese, 1 South American and 11 US Institutions

  • (many of them are also AMANDA member institutions)

  • Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, USA

  • BUGH Wuppertal, Germany

  • Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium

  • Dept. of Physics, Chiba University, Japan

  • CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta USA

  • DESY-Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany

  • Imperial College, London, UK

  • Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA

  • Dept. of Technology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden

  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA

  • Dept. of Physics, Southern University and A\&M College, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

  • Dept. of Physics, UC Berkeley, USA

  • Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany

  • Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, USA

  • University of Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium

  • Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

  • Dept. of Physics, Simon Bolivar University, Caracas, Venezuela

  • Dept. of Astronomy, Dept. of Physics, SSEC, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA

  • Physics Dept., University of Wisconsin, River Falls, USA

  • Division of High Energy Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

  • Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

  • Dept. of Physics, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA

  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel, Belgium

  • Utrecht, Holland (since 29th of October 2002)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Grid

North

100 m

AMANDA

South Pole

SPASE-2

Dome

Skiway

IceCube:Top View

80 strings

60 modules/string

Volume 1 km3

Depth 1400-2400 m

Counting

House

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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IceTop

AMANDA

South Pole

IceCube

Skiway

80 Strings

4800 PMT

1400 m

2400 m

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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- flavors and energy ranges

Filled area: particle id, angle, energy

Shaded area: energy and angle.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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µ-events in IceCube

Eµ=6 PeV

Eµ=10 TeV

AMANDA-II

1 km

Measure energy by counting the number of fired PMT.

(This is a very simple but robust method)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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1 pp core AGN (Nellen)

2 p core AGN

Stecker & Salomon)

3 p „maximum model“

(Mannheim et al.)

4 p blazar jets (Mannh)

5 p AGN

(Rachen & Biermann)

6 pp AGN (Mannheim)

7 GRB

(Waxman & Bahcall)

8 TD (Sigl)

Diffuse Fluxes: Predictions and Limits

Mannheim & Learned,

2000

Macro

Baikal

Amanda

IceCube

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Compare to Mrk 501 gamma rays

Field of view:

Continuous

2 p sr

(northern sky)

AMANDA B10

prelim. limit

Sensitivity of

3 years of IceCube

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts

Test signal: 1000 GRB a la Waxman/Bahcall 1999

Expected no. of events: 11 upgoing muon events

Expected background: 0.05 events

Sensitivity (1000 bursts):

0.2  dN/dE (Waxman/Bahcall 99)

Only 200 GRB needed to detect/rule out WB99 flux

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Cascade event

ne + N --> e- + X

The length of the actual cascade, ≈ 10 m, is small compared to the spacing of sensors

1 PeV ≈ 500 m diameter

Fully active calorimeter with linear energy resolution

Sensitivity for diffused flux about the same as for muons

E = 375 TeV

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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“Double Bang”

t + N --> t- + X

t + X

  • E << 1 PeV: Single cascade

  • (2 cascades coincide)

  • E ≈ 1 PeV: Double bang

  • E >> 1 PeV: Second cascade + tau track

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Tau neutrinos and oscillations

Enhanced role of tau neutrinos because of neutrino oscillation!?

Cosmic beam: ne = nµ = nt because of oscillations

nt not absorbed by the Earth (regeneration)

Pile-Up near 1 PeV where ideal sensitivity

IceCube sensitive to m2>10-17 eV2

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Dark matter detection with IceCube

WIMPS from Earth

WIMPS from Sun

Ice3 will significantly improve the sensitivity!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Supernova detection

  • ne + p n + e+(10-40 MeV)

  • PMT noise increase due to the positrons

  • AMANDA/IceCube records the noise of the PMTs over 0.5 sec and summing up total rate over 10 sec intervals.

  • Detectors to be connected to Supernova Early Warning System

AMANDA

IceCube

In addition to the MeV e neutrinos, 10-100 muon neutrinos are expected after a few hours in the TeV energy range.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Summary

  • IceCube will open a significant new window on the Universe.

  • Hopefully we will observe something which has not been discussed in this presentation.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Hotwater Drilling

Experience with AMANDA: 19 holes

Upgrade:from 2 to5 MW

Projected time to 2450 m depth: 40 h

Diameter: 50 cm

Drill 2 holes per week; 16 holes per season

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Optical sensor

Installation of one sensor: ≈10 min

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Mats Pettersson Gymnasielärare från Angereds gymnasium Göteborg vid sydpolen 14 november 2001

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

Joakim Edsjö SU


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Joakim Edsjö SU

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

Joakim Edsjö SU


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Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university


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