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Where technology enables knowledge. Mobile Learning. Trends, Possibilities and Examples John Traxler Learning and Teaching Research Fellow. Where technology enables knowledge. Mobile Learning. Outline Definition Case studies Technology brief review Pedagogy content discussion

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Mobile learning l.jpg

Where technology enables knowledge

Mobile Learning

Trends, Possibilities and Examples

John Traxler

Learning and Teaching Research Fellow

Mobile learning2 l.jpg

Where technology enables knowledge

Mobile Learning

  • Outline

    • Definition

    • Case studies

    • Technology

      • brief review

    • Pedagogy

      • content

      • discussion

      • support

    • Future

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Where technology enables knowledge

Mobile Learning

  • Definition

    “any educational provision where the sole or dominant technologies are handheld or palmtop devices”

    “including mobile ‘phones, smartphones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and their peripherals

    perhaps including tablets

    probably excluding laptops, desktops in carts etc”

    not stable, no consensus, potentially technocentric

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Where technology enables knowledge

Mobile Learning

mobile learning is technology supported learning

but more

spontaneous, personal, portable, lightweight, situated, bite-sized, unobtrusive, disruptive, ubiquitous, informal, pervasive

and more

constrained, minimal, primitive


costs differently

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Mobile Learning

Jon Trinder

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Where technology enables knowledge

Mobile Learning


  • increased publication

    • academic eg JCAL, Handbook for Educators and Trainers

    • general eg PDA Essentials

  • increased conferences and seminars

    • eg MLEARN, WMTE

  • developmental work

    • UK, USA and Far East; relevance to LDCs

    • small-scale, subject-specific pilots and trials starting to break through to institutional and departmental level

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Mobile Learning

    • Resourcing

      • Social Inclusion and Social Capital

        • social support, increased participation

  • Free Market “Added-Value”

    • glossy MBA, industrial training

  • Training Niches

    • teaching practice, nurse training

  • Leveraging the Consumer

    • SMS, mp3, picture messaging

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Mobile Learning

    • Case studies

      • m-learning

      • SMS – WU, SCIT, Kingston U

      • WAP

      • PDAs – USD, WU, Imperial, Mobilearn, Bristol

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    Case Study m-learning Project

    • 3 countries

      • UK, Sweden, Italy

    • €4.5m

    • 5 partners

      • LSDA, CTAD, Ultralab, CRMPA, Lecando

    • 36 months

    • Trials underway

      • 12 schemes, 200 learners

    IST number IST-2000-25270

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    The m-learning Target Groups

    • Basic Skills

      • Literacy

      • Numeracy

      • Social

    • Disengaged

      • From work, training and education

    • 16 - 24 yrs

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    The m-learning Technologies

    Device Independence

    • SMS / VoiceXML

    • smartphones - Sony p800

    • PDAs – XDA2

    • network PCs

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    The m-learning Pedagogies

    • mPortal

      • Individualised learners access point

    • LMS

      • Combining delivery and discussion

    • Intelligent tutor

      • Matching learners and content

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    Case Studies - Using SMS

    • University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing

    • Semester 2 2003/2004

    • Room changes, appointments, feedback, exam tips

    • Leading to large-scale institutional pilot

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    Case Study - Using WAP

    • University of Helsinki

    • Teacher training

      • Home Economics

      • 11 students

    • 10 Nokia Communicator 9210, 2 Casio QV-3000EX/Ir digital cameras

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    Case Study - Using WAP The ICUS Case Study

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    Background to ICUS Case Study

    • INSEAD - NOKIA - ICUS consortium

      • Purpose: to trial mobile eLearning with 2G technologies

    • Course: “eBusiness on the Move”

    • Learners: 22 experienced business managers

    • Length of course: approx.. 20 learner-hours

  • INSEAD: provided course content and coaches

  • ICUS: designed and developed the e-learning & mobile learning course

  • NOKIA: provided phones and WAP expertise

  • Starhub: Singapore telco provided WAP service

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    The ICUS Case Study

    • 70% of the course, that is all the text content, quizzes and schedules, was available on Web and WAP

      • gave users the choice of delivery platform.

  • 20% of the course was on Web only: digital video clips, bulletin board discussions, pdf files, email exchanges

  • 10% was on WAP only: visits to external WAP sites, getting quick reminders and getting alerts from the coach

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    The ICUS Case Study

    • design constraints for WAP course material:

      • shorter chunks of text

      • more screen displays

      • more section titles

  • to reversion existing web-based material a Word document was produced to cross-reference the WAP “chunks” and the Web “topics”.

    • a navigational aid when learners were switching back and forth between modes

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    WEB Files and Headings - “eBUSINESS ON THE MOVE”


    .Course Welcome

    .Course Overview

    MODULE 1

    MODULE 2

    MODULE 3

    WAP Files and Headings - eBUS ON MOVE”




    1. Introduction

    2. Coach Tung

    3. Coach Angehrn

    4. eLearning

    5. eLearning style

    6. Getting info

    7. Personal Info

    8. Knowing Others

    1. Introduction

    2. Description

    3. Objectives

    4. Pre-requisites

    5. [Bulletin Boards]

    6. Time Demands

    7. Schedule

    8. Participation

    9. Assessment

    10. Reading

    11. [Media used]

    The ICUS Case Study

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    Summary of ICUS Project

    • The case study showed that mobile learning supported by only 2G technologies exceeded learner expectations

      • 2G technology can provide a viable learning environment

      • Integration with PC is vital

    • The advent of 3G technologies will enable mobile learning to progress from providing learner support to providing complete interactive multimedia learning experiences

    • Mobile learning can help bridge the digital divide

    • There will eventually be no distinction between mobile learning and e-learning

    • Major technological progress is needed to ensure better integration of these terminals

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    Case Studies - Using PDAs

    • University of South Dakota

    • Central Washington University

    • Imperial College London

    • University of Wolverhampton

    • University of Oslo

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    Project started April 2003 - still in progress

    Roger Kneebone

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    • A new professional role, the Perioperative Specialist Practitioner (PSP), will expand the surgical team, providing holistic preoperative/ postoperative care through the patient’s journey.

    • PSPs will become key surgical team members, providing continuity of care. Work will include:

      • Preoperative assessment

      • Communication with patients and their relatives

      • Performing procedures

      • Recognising and managing routine postoperative problems

      • Calling for help when necessary

      • Managing discharge process

      • Teaching members of the surgical team

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    • Compaq iPAQ 3970

    • Foldable keyboard

    • Docking cradle

    • PPC

    • ABCDB Database for activity logging

    • Pocket Word

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    • Potential advantages:

      • Portable & easy to use on a hospital ward

      • Allow immediate recording of data

      • Uploading of activity data to training centre

      • Backup of data to protect from loss or corruption

    • Potential disadvantages:

      • Difficult to learn how to use them

      • Loss or theft

      • Time consuming

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    Observation and interview studies:

    • The majority of PSPs had not used a PDA before the project began

    • Participants like using PDAs, but only if they save time

    • Foldable keyboards are essential for written reflections

    • Current technical problems in activity logging are a significant obstacle to everyday use

    • Ready access to medical reference material would be valued

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    University of Wolverhampton

    Using Personal Digital Assistants to Support Students

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    The Issues

    • non-traditional students

      • parents, mature, no formal qualifications

      • unused to higher education

    • substantial part-time work

      • attendance and performance “at-risk”

    • personal information management skills

    • complexity of mass HE

      • rooming

      • modularity

      • timetabling

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    Sony Clié Handheld Computers


    • performance/ functionality

      • memory/ speed/ battery

    • build quality/ reliability

    • image/ style

      • leisure/ entertainment

    • preloaded applications

    • software costs and choice

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    Central Washington University

    • Handheld Composing: Using PDAs to Re-conceptualize Artist Practice

    • Mark Polishook

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    Handheld Composing

    • Mark Polishook, director of the composition and theory programs at Central hoped that Palms would stretch his students beyond the norms of music composition, forcing them to approach the creative process from a fresh perspective.

    • Music student Brenden Smith, right, adds vocalizations to a Palm piece of music he is playing as fellow student Abe Byron, centre, and Mark Polishook look on.

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    Handheld Composing

    • The musical score looks a little different from usual when using a Palm to compose.

    • But students at Central Washington University say they like it.

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    Handheld Composing

    A sample of their work

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    University of South Dakota

    • 1st HE institution in US to require its entire incoming freshman class to use Palm PDAs

    • incoming freshmen (about 1000 students for 2001/2002 and 2002/2003; scaled back to 100 in 2003/2004 to Honours freshman

    • more difficult than originally thought to get students to use handhelds for personal and academic purposes

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    University of Oslo

    • KNOWMOBILE Project

      • Ole Smørdal and Judith Gregory

    • medical students

      • on placement

        • general practice

        • local hospital

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    University of Oslo

    • HP Jornada 710, HP Jornada 548

    • synched email

    • Avantgo custom channels

    • ebooks - medical reference

    • web portal

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    University of Oslo

    • Settings

      • classroom

        • standalone PDAs, synched to networked desktop PCs

      • “digs”

        • wireless Internet connections at GP surgeries, digs

      • commuting

        • GSM cellular phone cards, access at home, on train

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    Case Study - Using Smartphones

    • SMILE Project

      • Sussex Mobile Interactive Learning Environment

        • Sussex University COGS

        • course: Interactive Learning Environments

        • students:

        • 19 third-yr u/g, 9 p/g students

      • Rose Lucking et al

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    Case Study - Using Smartphones

    • O2 XDA with full Internet access

    • MS Office, email, browser, logging, GPRS, yahoo group, QuickTime, media player

    • based on “conversational” theory

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    Case Study - Using Smartphones

    • Students logged onto course web-site at normal lecture time and followed PowerPoint presentation

      • used interactive polls

      • join online discussion

    • Issues (from feedback)

      • “ownership”

      • reliability

      • ergonomic

      • functionality

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    • Prof. Mike Sharples, University of B’ham

    • HandLeR, prototype object-oriented system

    • based on Conversational Theory

    • communication, construction, control

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    • Rabbit avatar giving image of user’s functions

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    • A Fujutsu Stylistic LT Pen Tablet, 8.4” 800 x 600 SVGA display, touch sensitive screen, 233MHz Pentium Windows 98

    • 3Com Home Connect camera

    • Lucent Technologies IEEE 802.11 wireless card up to 11Mbs

    • PCMCIA Nokia CardPhone, direct voice communication from the computer to a mobile phone or to another computer, and data connection at 9.6Kbs.

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Mobile Learning

    Core Aspects of Content Delivery

    based on PDA and smartphone functionality

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Mobile Ups

    • location-aware/context-aware

    • `phone

    • camera

    • audio

    • software

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Mobile Downs

    • battery life

    • synching

    • data entry

    • size

    • data storage

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    Mobile Downs

    • In the context of mobile commercial and industrial training (and education - Bacsisch et al, 1999)

      • loss of privacy

        • personal data

        • location-aware

      • stressful

        • “always-on”

      • deskilling

        • encapsulates procedures, products, practices on a machine

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Mobile Functionality

    • Personal Information Management

      • Tasks, calendars, reminders, contacts

    • Office functions

      • Word-processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentations

    • Internet

      • Email, web-browsing

    • Specials

      • Bibliography, mind maps

    • Media

      • Video, graphics, sound capture and playback

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Content Issues

    • Major Issues

      • Usability

        • Many studies eg Kukulska-Hulme

    • Accessibility

      • SENDA

        • Many studies and report eg Rainger

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Developing Content

    • ab initio

    • reversioning

      • web-pages

      • documents

      • CAL

      • Learning Objects

        • Standards issues – PocketSCORM

          • Compliant doesn’t imply usable

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    Content Sources

    • ebooks

      • Mobipocket

    • document viewers

      • PDF, Repligo

    • web-clipping

      • Avantgo

    • conferencing

      • FirstClass conduit

    • virtual learning environment

      • Blackboard-To-Go

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    The Future

    • On the horizon

      • virtual laser keyboards

      • hard-drives

      • TV

      • dictation input

        • (March 2004, £94)

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    Where technology enables knowledge

    The Future

    • Issues and Challenges

      • resourcing, funding, blending, embedding, equity

      • standards, portability, device-independence, quality

      • personalisation, location awareness

      • accessibility

      • platforms, systems: competition and/or convergence