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Group Members Akou Amefia Kari Alderman Shivakumar Elayedath Tiffany Gregory Carrie Mueller Luis Rodriguez-Romo Hector Ruiz-Espinosa FST 696 Spring 2000. Lemon Curd Sauce. What is Lemon Curd?. Traditional English dessert sauce. Eggs, butter, sugar, lemon juice. Gourmet product.

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lemon curd sauce
Group Members

Akou Amefia

Kari Alderman

Shivakumar Elayedath

Tiffany Gregory

Carrie Mueller

Luis Rodriguez-Romo

Hector Ruiz-Espinosa

FST 696

Spring 2000

Lemon Curd Sauce
what is lemon curd
What is Lemon Curd?
  • Traditional English dessert sauce.
  • Eggs, butter, sugar, lemon juice.
  • Gourmet product.
  • Some national and imported brands available on the market, but none have neither the organolpetic properties of the original nor only its ingredients (other food additives).
issues
Issues
  • To take a kitchen recipe to an industrial operation
  • Desired shelf life stability, 1 year
  • No additives
  • No preservatives
glorious gourmet
Glorious Gourmet
  • Gourmet Food Company, based in Ohio.
  • Specialty stores, several products in the market.
  • Target market:
    • Upper class
    • People who eat what is “IN”
    • Not health conscious
usage of lemon curd
Usage of Lemon Curd
  • Spread on muffins, croissants, and other breads
  • A filling for pies and tarts
role of eggs
Role of Eggs
  • Multifunctional properties:
    • coagulation
    • foaming
    • emulsion forming
coagulation
Coagulation
  • Coagulation can be achieved by:
    • heating
    • acid addition
  • Factors affecting coagulation:
    • temperature (62-65oC)
    • Sugar increases temperature of coagulation
    • Acid lowers time and temperature of coagulation
emulsion formation
Emulsion formation
  • Lipoproteins and phospholipids in egg yolk help in emulsification
  • Factors affecting emulsion formation:
    • Viscosity
    • Heating yolk to 63oC
    • Fermentation of yolk with pancreatic lipase
role of butter
Role of butter
  • Butter gives the product
    • flavor
    • texture and mouthfeel of the product
  • Phospholipids in the fat globule membrane of the butter also give the product some emulsification
  • Oxidative stability is high
    • high content of saturated fatty acids
    • low in poly-unsaturates
  • Has natural antioxidants which reduce lipid oxidation
lemon juice
Lemon juice
  • Average pH - 2.3
  • Main component citric acid
  • Role in Lemon curd:
    • Flavor (tartness & lemon flavor)
    • Protein denaturation (body, texture & mouth feel)
    • Acidulant (antimicrobial agent)
    • Citric acid sequesters the metals –prevents lipid oxidation
sugar
Sugar
  • Sweetening agent
  • Balances natural acidity in fruits
  • Reduces water activity by binding free water
  • Increases microbial stability
  • Protects egg proteins from acid and heat denaturation
  • Prevents syneresis
  • Participates in browning reactions ( acid hydrolysis)
lemon oil
Responsible for the pungency of flavor(aldehyde ester)

Most important flavor component is citral (neral & gerenial)

Lemon oil
processing method
Processing Method
  • Equipment
    • Steam kettles Howlett Hall
    • Stephan UMC V Electronic Batch Process
  • Variables
    • Order of addition
      • Preblending eggs, butter, sugar
      • Addition of lemon juice as last ingredient
processing method15
Processing Method
  • Variables
    • Cooking Temperature
    • Processing Method (using Stephan UMC)
      • Pre-blending of eggs, sugar and butter
      • Addition of remaining ingredients
      • Bring to 104°F
      • Hot fill into glass jars
      • Remaining heat treatment in 170°F water bath
emulsion stability method and results
Emulsion Stability: method and results

Oil separation on subjecting product to high temperature and centrifugation (Pai,1995)

ph and ta methodology
pH and TA: Methodology.
  • Titratable acidity

Measurement of acidity within a sample . It is expressed in terms of citric acid

  • pH

Measured using Fisher Accumet pH Meter Model 630

slide19

Aw and Viscosity: Methodology

  • Water activity:

Measured using a Decagon CX-2 Water Activity Meter on some of our samples and ranged from 0.949 to 0.950.

  • Viscosity Measurements

A Brookfield Viscometer (model DV) was used . Spindle #4 was used at a speed of 1.0RPM for 2 minutes.

color analysis methodology
Color Analysis: Methodology
  • Instrument: HunterLab Ultrascan colorimeter
  • Readings made on 150F fill, 170F fill, water bath, and original order of addition samples using square glass sample holders
  • L, a, and b values obtained
    • L = lightness
    • Positive a = red, Negative a = green
    • Positive b = yellow, Negative b = blue
color analysis results
Color Analysis: Results
  • No statistically significant differences were found
  • General trend: L decreases over time
  • After 14 days of accelerated shelf life at 37C:
    • water bath sample has highest L-value
sensory analysis methodology
Sensory Analysis: Methodology
  • Descriptive analysis used
    • Panel: Lemon curd group members
    • Scoresheet: Unstructured line scale
    • Attributes:
      • Color
      • Lemon flavor
      • Sweetness
      • Smoothness
      • Thickness
sensory analysis methodology continued
Sensory Analysis: Methodology(continued)
  • 150F fill, 170F fill, water bath, and original order of addition samples were analyzed at 0, 7, and 14 days of accelerated shelf life (37C)
  • Data quantified by ruler
  • Data analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s pairwise comparisons using SAS at 5% significance level
sensory analysis results
Sensory Analysis: Results
  • Lack of statistically significant differences
    • Many sources of variation
  • Differences found in:
    • Color: water bath lighter in yellow color
      • Correlates with color data
    • Lemon: original order of addition most intense
    • Thickness: 150F fill least thick
      • Correlates with viscosity measurements
methodology
Methodology
  • Simulated extended shelf life of product at 25 & 37 °C
  • TOTAL PLATE COUNT (Plate Count Agar) Presence of aerobic mesophiles
  • YEASTS & MOLDS:

Acidified Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA)

Identification of yeast & molds

methodology conditions
Methodology, Conditions
  • PREPARATIONS OF LEMON CURD (DIFFERENT. PREPARATION CONDITIONS)
  • SHELF-LIFE °T 25 & 37 °C
  • TIME DAYS (1- >7)
microbiological results
Microbiological results
  • Not detectable bacterial plate count

(< 10 cfu/g in more than 7 days at 25 & 37 °C)

  • Growth of molds (Rhizopus spp.) in seven days
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Use of antimicrobial agent: sodium benzoate at up to 0.1 %
  • Keep the product refrigerated after opening
  • Water bath heating after filling
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