Introduction
Download
1 / 42

Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 240 Views
  • Updated On :

These slides contain: Summaries of some of the main contents of European Dictatorships (with page references) Additional material: Historical Historiographical Instructions. Go on to Slide Show > View Show. This will activate: Slide transitions Slide and box animations

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction' - Roberta


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Introduction l.jpg

These slides contain:

Summaries of some of the main contents of European Dictatorships (with page references)

Additional material:

Historical

Historiographical

Instructions.

Go on to Slide Show > View Show. This will activate:

Slide transitions

Slide and box animations

Hyperlinks within this PowerPoint

Links to other websites for:

Illustrations

Text

Other links

Title page follows

Introduction


Supporting powerpoint 2 types of dictatorship l.jpg

EUROPEAN DICTATORSHIPS1918 - 1945THIRD EDITION ROUTLEDGE 2008

Supporting PowerPoint2 Types of Dictatorship

STEPHEN J. LEE



Slide4 l.jpg

Introduction to the overall argument of Chapter 2(Details in European Dictatorships 25-38)

DICTATORSHIP IS A GENERIC TERM, CONSISTING OF TWO MAIN TYPES:

  • Totalitarian

  • Normally associated with two ideological systems

2. Authoritarian

a. Communism

Ideology usually absent, unless in traditionalist form

b. Fascism/Nazism


Summary of argument of chapter 2 types of dictatorship details in european dictatorships 37 8 l.jpg
Summary of argument of Chapter 2: Types of dictatorship(Details in European Dictatorships 37-8)

LEVEL 1 GENERIC TERM:

DICTATORSHIP

Level 2: generic type

Totalitarian

Level 2: generic type

Authoritarian

Level 3: ideological system

Communism

Level 3: ideological system

Usually absent

Examples:

Spain

Portugal

Austria

Hungary

Poland

Baltic States

Albania

Yugoslavia

Romania

Bulgaria

Greece

Turkey

Examples:

Russia 1918-24

Russia 1924-53

Level 3: ideological system

Fascism/Nazism

Examples:

Italy 1922-45

Germany 1933-45


Part 1 what is the meaning of dictatorship l.jpg
Part 1What is the meaning of ‘dictatorship’?


The meaning of dictatorship details and comments in european dictatorships 25 6 l.jpg
The meaning of ‘dictatorship?’(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 25-6)

RESTRICTED APPROACH

OPEN APPROACH

Original definition (Roman):

Temporary grant by Senate of exceptional

powers to deal with an emergency.

Modern definition (CURTIS):

Essential ingredient is power; an emergency

is not necessarily present.

Modern definition (BUCCHEIM):

Temporary device: short-term suspension of

democratic processes when quick and

vigorous action necessary.

Modern definition (BROOKER):

Emergence since World War I of a regime with

an official ideology and political party;

ideological one-party state

Modern definition (LINZ):

Interim crisis government which has not

institutionalised Itself, breaking from previous

regime – democratic, traditional or

authoritarian.


Part 2 what types of dictatorship were there between 1918 and 1945 l.jpg
Part 2What types of ‘dictatorship’ were there between 1918 and 1945?


Slide9 l.jpg
Authoritarian and Totalitarian systems: how do they relate to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 26-7)

Authoritarianism is a term to cover all forms of

non-democratic regime

Totalitarianism is its most

extreme manifestation

Authoritarianism

Totalitarianism

OR

Preferred approach

are

distinct


Characteristics of totalitarian regimes details and comments in european dictatorships 2 9 l.jpg
Characteristics of Totalitarian regimes to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 29)

Radical programme of change

Deliberate mobilization of the masses

Possession of a distinctive ideology

Under control of a single party, which mobilized mass support

Organization of paramilitary groups

Subjection to systematic control – and terror

Indoctrination, seeking destruction of cultural pluralism

Establishment of complete control over the economy


Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes details and comments in european dictatorships 29 l.jpg
Authoritarian and Totalitarian regimes to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 29)

Authoritarian regimes

Totalitarian regimes

had a

had a

conservative approach

radical approach

which

which

immobilised the masses

mobilised the masses

and

and

emphasized traditional values

emphasized new ideologies

This was done through

This was done through

a centralised monopoly of power –

often military

a one-party control of all power

and sometimes enforced by

and always enforced by

a security apparatus

a security apparatus


Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes which were they l.jpg
Authoritarian and Totalitarian regimes: to each other?which were they?

AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES

TOTALITARIAN REGIMES

Austria under Dollfuss etc.

Germany under Hitler 1933-45

Hungary under Horthy etc.

Italy under Mussolini 1922-45

Spain under Primo de Rivera and Franco

Portugal under Salazar

Russia under Lenin 1917-24

Poland under Pilsudski etc

Russia under Stalin1924/9-53

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

Yugoslavia

Russia after Stalin

Albania

Greece

Bulgaria

Romania

Turkey under Atatürk


Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes which were they alternative view l.jpg
Authoritarian and Totalitarian regimes: to each other?which were they? Alternative view

AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES

TOTALITARIAN REGIMES

Austria under Dollfuss etc.

Germany under Hitler 1933-45

Hungary under Horthy etc.

Russia under Lenin 1917-24

Pre-totalitarian authoritarian?

Spain under Primo de Rivera and Franco

Portugal under Salazar

Russia under Stalin1924/9-53

Poland under Pilsudski etc

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

Russia after Stalin

Post-totalitarian authoritarian?

Yugoslavia

Italy under Mussolini 1922-45

incomplete totalitarian?

Albania

Greece

Bulgaria

Romania

Turkey under Atatürk


Complications of term totalitarian details and comments in european dictatorships 27 9 l.jpg
Complications of term ‘Totalitarian’ to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 27-9)

1

Were Communist regimes ‘totalitarian’ per se? Or was this simply a ‘Cold War classification’?

(Gleeson, Curtis). Possible alternatives:

Lenin’s Russia: ‘pre-totalitarian

authoritarian?’

Stalin’s Russia: fully totalitarian?

Post Stalinist Russia: ‘post-

totalitarian authoritarian?

2

Was there ever any such thing as ‘totalitarian democracy’? (Talmon) Or were all

Totalitarian regimes dictatorships?

3

Are there ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ forms of totalitarianism? (Tormey) Or were all

Totalitarian regimes dictatorships?

Weak systems: regimes have to react to changes

rather than being able to control them

Strong systems: regimes achieve control by

socialization, indoctrination as well as force

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 27-9


Authoritarian regimes and totalitarianism totalitarian regimes and authoritarianism ed 37 l.jpg
Authoritarian regimes and totalitarianism to each other?Totalitarian regimes and authoritarianism(ED 37)

Before 1939:

Authoritarian regimes were generally

strong enough to prevent democracy

and also resist being taken over by

totalitarian ideologies. Totalitarian

systems arose in former democracies,

not in authoritarian states.

Spain, Portugal, Austria, Hungary,

Poland, the Baltic States, Yugoslavia,

Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece –

all prevented a takeover by

Communism or Fascism, which

took power in Russia (Provisional

Government), Liberal Italy, Weimar

Germany.

BUT

After 1939:

Totalitarian regimes conquered the

authoritarian regimes as part of their

process of expansion. They imposed

their ideologies by occupation or

Influence.

Italy occupied Albania.

Germany occupied: Austria, W.

Poland, Baltic states, Yugoslavia,

Greece; influenced Hungary, Bulgaria,

Romania

Russia occupied: E. Poland and Baltic

States


Principal european dictators l.jpg
Principal European dictators to each other?

TOTALITARIAN

AUTHORITARIAN

1920

1925

1930

1935

1940

1945

Russia

LENIN

STALIN

Italy

MUSSOLINI

Germany

HITLER

Portugal

SALAZAR

Spain

PRIMO DE RIVERA

FRANCO

Austria

DOLFUSS

SCHUSCHNIGG

Hungary

HORTHY

Kun

Szálasi

Poland

PIŁSUDSKI

Baltic States

SMETONA, ULMANIS, PÄTS

Yugoslavia

ALEXANDER

PAVELIC

Albania

ZOG

Romania

CAROL

ANTONESCU

Bulgaria

BORIS

Greece

METAXAS

Turkey

MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATüRK


European dictatorships by 1938 l.jpg
European dictatorships by 1938 to each other?

Dictatorships by 1938

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D


Dictatorships dismantled by other dictatorships 1938 42 l.jpg
Dictatorships dismantled by other dictatorships 1938-42 to each other?

Totalitarian dictatorships by 1938

D

D

D

Authoritarian dictatorships dismantled by totalitarian dictatorships 1938-43

D

D

D

D

D

Authoritarian dictatorships in alliance with totalitarian dictatorships after 1940

D

D

D

D

Authoritarian dictatorships remaining outside control of totalitarian dictatorships

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D


Part 3 what ideologies influenced these dictatorships between 1918 and 1945 l.jpg
Part 3 to each other?What ideologies influenced these ‘dictatorships’ between 1918 and 1945?


Slide21 l.jpg
Communism: Marxist origins and Leninist adaptation to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 30-1)

‘The history of all human society, past and present, has been the history of

class struggles.’ (Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto, 1848). Future:

MARX

Revolution by proletariat

against bourgeoisie & capitalism

Dictatorship of the

Proletariat

Classless Society

Revolutions most likely where capitalism was strongest and proletariat largest – e.g. Germany and Britain

Importance of party organization. ‘Just as a blacksmith cannot seize a red-hot iron,

so the proletariat cannot directly seize power’.

LENIN

Revolution by proletariat led by party of

professional revolutionaries

Dictatorship of the Proletariat

maintained by party

Classless Society

Revolutions most likely where capitalism was weakest– e.g. Russia

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 27-9


Communism early spread in europe details and comments in european dictatorships 31 l.jpg
Communism: Early spread in Europe to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 31)

Communist revolutions

1917-19

Successful

Unsuccessful or

temporary


Communism stalinist adaptation details and comments in european dictatorships 31 2 l.jpg
Communism: Stalinist adaptation to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 31-2)

He abandoned the emphasis by Lenin and Trotsky on Permanent Revolution

1

and substituted

Socialism in One Country

He upgraded the significance of the bureaucratic state

2

by

Strengthening the

‘Dictatorship of the

Proletariat’

Reversing the

relationship between

‘base’ and ‘superstructure’

Introducing the central

Planning system

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 31-2


Communism later spread in europe l.jpg
Communism: later spread in Europe to each other?

Communist regimes established

after World War II

Under Soviet control

Independent of Soviet control


Origins of fascism 1 details and comments in european dictatorships 32 l.jpg
Origins of fascism (1) to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 32)

Marxist interpretations

1

Communist International 1933: in the crisis of capitalism after World War I, fascism was the dying and most extreme phase of bourgeois-capitalist domination. Fascist leaders were the ‘agents’ of capitalist controllers.

2

Gramsci: Fascism represented the political crisis of capitalist states. In its attempt to revive capitalism, fascism was a radical alternative to the fading appeal of the traditional ruling class.

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 33


Origins of fascism 2 details and comments in european dictatorships 33 l.jpg
Origins of fascism (2) to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 33)

Non-Marxist interpretations

1

Meinecke, Ritter: Fascism emerged from a moral crisis of European society. According to Fromm, it was ‘an escape from freedom and a refuge in submission’.

2

Blum: Fascism was a rejection of the ideals of the Enlightenment and French Revolution: rationalism, liberalism, democracy, egalitarianism.

3

Nolte: Fascism was a response to the development of Communism. ‘The origin of the Right lies always in the challenge of the Left.’

4

Hildebrand: Fascism was a reaction to development, a resistance of ‘residual elites’ to ‘industrial tendencies’ of industrial society.

5

Fascism was a reaction to the unsettling impact of World War I, especially on recently united states such as Italy and Germany.

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 33


The characteristics of fascism details and comments in european dictatorships 34 l.jpg
The characteristics of fascism to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 34)

1

It carried a belief in radical change and revolution to achieve social transformation and rebirth.

2

It rejected (1) parliamentary democracy and (2) the revolutionary left and class conflict.

3

It was presided over by an absolute leader, who had the trappings of personality cult.

4

It was normally totalitarian, controlling all forms of communication.

5

It developed an alternative economic strategy to capitalism and socialism

6

It focused on the survival of the fittest

7

It was militarist, hypernationalist and often racist.


Should fascism include nazism details and comments in european dictatorships35 l.jpg
Should ‘Fascism’ include ‘Nazism’? to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships35)

NO

Sternhell: Fascism originated in France as the conjunction of the syndicalism and ultra-nationalism. It was developed further in Italy. Nazism was distinct and should not be included in the term fascism.

The consensus is that Nazism should be included in fascism.

Kershaw: Nazism and Italian Fascism were ‘separate species within the same genus’.

Nolte: Nazism was ‘radical fascism’.

Linz: Nazism was a ‘distinctive branch grafted on the fascist tree’.

But: Nazism placed more emphasis than fascism on the racial community and anti-Semitism.

YES

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 35


Where did fascism derive its support details and comments in european dictatorships 34 l.jpg
Where did fascism derive its support? to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 34)

1

The lumpenproletariat: some of the unemployed and socially displaced

2

Rural populations: peasantry and estate owners

3

Many former army officers, demobilized soldiers and veterans of the First World War

4

The middle classes, affected by economic crises in the 1920s and 1930s

5

Capital and big business – as a means of finding security against the threat of communism

6

Overall, fascism benefited from the instability of the inter-war period.

For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3rd edition) 34


Which regimes and movements were fascist before 1939 ed 30 l.jpg
Which regimes and movements were ‘Fascist’ before 1939? to each other?(ED 30)

Fascist totalitarian

regimes

7

8

Fascist movements in non-Fascist

authoritarian regimes

6

1 Falange (Spain)

2 Falanga (Poland)

3 Heimwehr (Austria)

4 Arrow Cross (Hungary)

5 Iron Guard (Romania)

6 Iron Wolf (Lithuania)

7 Estonian Freedom Fighters

8 Thunder Cross (Latvia)

9 Ustasha (Croatia)

12

2

14

NAZI GERMANY

13

11

3

4

10

5

Fascist movements in

democratic regimes

FASCIST ITALY

10Action Francaise (France)

11 Rex (Belgium)

12 British Union of Fascists

13 Lapua (Finland)

14 Dutch National Socialists

1


Other influences in inter war europe details and comments in european dictatorships 36 l.jpg
Other influences in inter-war Europe to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 36)

NATIONALISM

CLERICALISM

CONSERVATISM

MILITARISM


Nationalism an ideology details and comments in european dictatorships 36 l.jpg
Nationalism: an ideology? to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 36)

YES

NO

SUGAR: One of the three ‘dominant

ideologies of the twentieth century’

(along with Communism and Fascism/

Nazism).

MINOGUE: ‘a set of ideas’ but these

‘add up less to a theory than to a

rhetoric’, the communication of ‘political

excitement’ from an elite to the

masses’.

  • Possible support for this:

  • The only set of ideas which

  • consistently means what it says.

  • Its capacity to generate huge levels of

  • commitment and enthusiasm.

  • Its association with aggression against

  • other identities.

  • Possible support for this:

  • Basic principles of nationalism present

  • in most ideologies (e.g. Fascism,

  • Nazism, Stalinist Communism).

  • Large number of different variations.


Types of nationalism in inter war europe ed 36 7 l.jpg
Types of Nationalism in inter-war Europe to each other?(ED 36-7)

TYPE

EXPLANATION

EXAMPLES

NATIONAL

SELF-DETERMINATION

Search by indigenous groups for their

own statehood

Czechs, Poles, Serbs, Croats,

Lithuanians, Estonians,

Latvians

INTEGRATIONIST

NATIONALISM

Attempts by dominant nationality to

impose its domination over others to

achieve national unity

Poland vs Lithuanians, Belo-

russians, Ukrainians;

Romania vs Hungarians

IRREDENTIST

NATIONALISM

Attempts by nation states to claim or

reclaim their co-nationals living in other

states

Italy vs Yugoslavia;

Hungary vs Romania, Czech.

Germany vs Poland, Czech.

HISTORIC

NATIONALISM

Revival of national pride in longer-

established nations

Spain: Francoism; Portugal:

Empire; Hungary: Szálasi’s

Hungarism

‘INFLAMED’

NATIONALISM

Extreme, repressive or eliminationist

manifestations – usually racist and

anti-Semitic

Instances in most dictatorships,

especially Germany; anti-

Semitism widespread


Clericalism details and comments in european dictatorships 36 l.jpg
Clericalism to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 36)

especially in Spain under Franco,

Austria under Dollfuss, Portugal

under Salazar, Poland under

Pilsudski

Normally Catholicism or the

Catholic Church, expressing

itself as a Conservative influence

and cooperating with conservative

forms of authoritarianism

against

Communism

Less apparent in

Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Baltic

states

The reverse (measures to restrict the

political influence of the religious power)

applied in

Turkey under Atatürk


Conservatism the two roles details and comments in european dictatorships 37 l.jpg
Conservatism: the two roles to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 37)

REDUCTIONIST

CONSERVATISM

To maintain the status quo and remove

destabilising influences such as

communism, socialism or fascism

Examples: Hungary under Horthy;

Poland under Pilsudski; Portugal under

Salazar

BONDING

CONSERVATISM

To rally the centre and right against the

Left and far left

Examples: later Weimar Germany;

Spain under Franco


Types of militarism details and comments in european dictatorships 37 l.jpg
Types of Militarism to each other?(Details and comments in European Dictatorships 37)

Military action as a force against

authoritarianism as a force for

change and reform

Examples: Pre- World War I Spain, Portugal, Turkey

Militarism as the ally of

conservative authoritarianism

Examples: Inter- War regimes: Poland (Pilsudski), Spain Franco), Hungary (Horthy), Greece (Metaxas)


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion to each other?


Classification of dictatorships 1918 45 l.jpg
Classification of dictatorships 1918-45 to each other?

Authoritarian

This classification is open to

debate

Estonia, Latvia,

Lithuania, Poland

Turkey: Atatürk

Austria, Portugal, Hungary (Horthy),

Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece,

Albania, Bulgaria

Russia: post- Stalin

Spain: Franco

Right

Left

Hungary (Bela Kun)

Italy: Mussolini

Russia: Lenin

Russia: Stalin

Germany: Hitler

Totalitarian


Classification of dictatorships 1918 4539 l.jpg
Classification of dictatorships 1918-45 to each other?

Authoritarian

Suggest alternative classifications

on this chart …

Right

Left

Totalitarian


Classification of dictatorships 1918 4540 l.jpg
Classification of dictatorships 1918-45 to each other?

… or on this blank chart


End of powerpoint 2 l.jpg
End of PowerPoint 2 to each other?


ad