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[email protected] Information Technology & The Autistic Culture:. Influences, Empowerment, & Progression of IT Usage in Advocacy Initiatives. Scott Michael Robertson Ph.D. Candidate Information Sciences & Technology The Pennsylvania State University. Contacting Me.

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information technology the autistic culture

[email protected]

Information Technology & The Autistic Culture:

Influences, Empowerment, & Progression of IT Usage in

Advocacy Initiatives

Scott Michael Robertson

Ph.D. Candidate

Information Sciences & Technology

The Pennsylvania State University

contacting me
Contacting Me
about me multiple hats
About Me: Multiple “Hats”
  • Multiple Perspectives on autism:
    • Autistic Adult
    • Researcher
    • Educator, Mentor
    • Advocate/Self-Advocate
  • Cross-informative & complementary
multiple hats my autistic adult hat
Multiple “Hats”:My Autistic Adult “Hat”
  • Somewhat self-explanatory
  • Common story:
    • Self-dx after reading a book on autism in ‘99
      • 1st Yr. of College
      • Mindblindness
    • Clinically diagnosed: ~6 yrs. later
multiple hats my researcher hat
Multiple “Hats”:My Researcher “Hat”
  • Third year Ph.D. student @ Penn State
    • College of Information Sciences & Technology
    • Multidisciplinary research:
      • Information, Technology, People
  • Thesis Focus:
    • Technology support for postsecondary education transition for adolescents & young adults on the autistic spectrum
    • Stakeholder groups: autistic secondary & postsecondary students, secondary & postsecondary educators, parents
    • Primarily Qualitative & Design-based research
multiple hats my educator hat
Multiple “Hats”:My Educator “Hat”
  • Summer program for adolescents and young adults of cognitive difference
    • Pittsburgh, PA
    • Affiliated w/ Carnegie Mellon Univ. (now La Roche College)
    • Taught:
      • computer programming (C++, Java), writing, journalism, photography, & social relationship skills (2 yrs.)
    • Mentored a student each yr.
    • Assistant director for 1 yr.
  • Autistic/Asperger’s support class (high school)
    • Classroom volunteer (1 term)
  • Social Group For Autistic Teens
    • Co-organizer
multiple hats my advocate hat
Multiple “Hats”: My Advocate “Hat”
  • Speaker
  • Writer
  • Autistic Self-Advocacy Network (ASAN)
    • VP & PA Director
  • PA Bureau of Autism Services
    • Adult Services Advisory Committee
penn state natl autism conference
Penn State Natl. Autism Conference
  • July 30-August 3
  • State College, PA
  • I’m hosting 2 sessions:
    • Opening Keynote Presentation: Adolescence, Adulthood, & The Autism Spectrum
    • Postsecondary Education Transition For Autistic Students
overview
Overview
  • Jargon Jogger
  • Influences on IT Usage by Autistic Community
  • Early History of Autistics’ IT Usage
  • Recent Developments
    • Platforms
    • Usage Themes
  • Emerging Usage Themes
    • Service community (ex. postsecondary education portal)
    • Simulations & virtual environments (ex. Brigadoon)
jargon jogger
Jargon Jogger
  • IT=information technology
    • e.g. email, IM, websites, telephone, etc.
  • blog=short for web log: a web-based journal of events/thoughts
  • email list=email-based distributive messaging list
  • IM=instant messaging
  • f2f=face-to-face communication (in-person)
  • synchronous comm.=at the same time
    • e.g. a telephone conversation, a f2f conversation
  • asynchronous comm.=not at the same time
    • e.g. an email message, a letter, website post, newsgroup post
  • asynchronous & synchronous hybrid
    • instant messaging, text messaging, IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
it autistic community influences
IT & Autistic Community:Influences
  • 1. Systematic-logical nature of IT
  • 2. Limits on Nonverbal Communication
  • 3. Lack of auditory processing
  • 4. Lack of physical & vocal presence
  • 5. Control over the social-culture & physical environment
    • Including sensory environment
  • 6. Relatively anonymous
influences on it usage 1 logical systematic nature
Influences on IT Usage:1. Logical-Systematic Nature
  • Systematically organized, designed, used
    • Software programmed w/ algorithmic units
    • Hardware targeted for specific function & purpose
  • Fits cognitive style of many autistics
    • Logical, Rational, Rule-based
  • Designed by & for autistics
    • Dr. Alan Turing, father of computer science
    • Creator of Turing Machine
      • abstract model used in modern computers today
    • Described as autistic by many authors
      • e.g. O’Connel & Fitzgerald, 2003; Tofs, Johnson, & Cavallaro, 2003; James, 2005; Elder, 2005
influences on it usage 2 nonverbal comm
Influences on IT Usage:2. Nonverbal Comm.
  • Challenges of nonverbal comm. for autistics
    • Self-reported (including this presenter)
    • Identified in studies
      • (e.g. Barnhill et al., 2002; Scott, 1985; Howlin, 2000; Coning & Magill-Evans, 2001; Sperry & Mesibov, 2005)
  • Throughout the lifespan
    • Develop compensatory strategies & adapt
    • Certain degree of challenge remains (usually)
  • Nonverbal channel categorization
  • Nonverbal channel usage across comm. types
influences on it usage 2 nonverbal comm types
Influences on IT Usage:2. Nonverbal Comm.: Types
  • Nonverbal Comm. Channels (Nowicki & Duke, 2002)
    • Visual Cues
      • Facial Expressions
      • Gestures
      • Postures/Body Movement
      • Clothing, Appearance, & Item Usage
    • Auditory Cues (aka paralinguistic)
      • Tone of Voice, Volume, Prosody, Speech Rate, etc.
    • Other Cues
      • Haptics (tactile actions)
      • Proxemics (spatial usage)
      • Chronemics (time usage)
influences on it usage 2 nonverbal comm usage
Influences on IT Usage:2. Nonverbal Comm.: Usage
  • Face-to-face communication:
    • Visual Nonverbal Cues
    • Auditory Nonverbal Cues
    • Haptics, Proxemics, & Chronemics
  • Telephone communication:
    • Auditory Nonverbal Cues
    • Chronemics
  • Online communication (text-based):
    • Chronemics
influences on it usage 3 auditory processing
Influences on IT Usage:3. Auditory Processing
  • Auditory vs. Visual Language Processing
    • Auditory Language
      • Transient
        • high demand on attention focus & rapid language reception & expression
      • Sequential
        • Can’t go back to message parts w/o repeating/replaying
    • Visual Language
      • Intransient (typically)
        • Less demand on attention focus & speedy language reception & expression
      • Non-sequential (typically)
        • Can re-read, re-scan, re-examine, re-analyze, re-scrutinize, etc.
influences on it usage 3 auditory processing cont
Influences on IT Usage:3. Auditory Processing (Cont.)
  • Challenges of auditory language processing for autistics:
    • Self-reported
    • Identified in studies
      • (e.g. Gervais et al., 2004; Boddaert et al., 2004, Jansson-Verkasalo et al., 2003)
  • Degree of challenges varies greatly
    • individual differences
    • physical environment
      • many competing sounds, loud background noise
    • social environment
      • many people vs. fewer people
    • state of mind
      • stress level, emotional state, recent & past experiences, etc.
influences on it usage 3 auditory processing cont19
Influences on IT Usage:3. Auditory Processing (Cont.)
  • Face-to-face comm.
    • moderate to high demand on auditory language processing
  • Telephone comm.
    • very high demand on auditory language processing
  • Text-based online comm.
    • no demand on auditory language processing
influences on it usage 4 physical vocal presence
Influences on IT Usage:4. Physical & Vocal Presence
  • Face-to-face comm.
    • Physical presence from:
      • Visual cues (verbal & nonverbal cues)
      • Tactile (haptic) cues
    • Auditory (vocal) presence from:
      • Auditory cues (verbal & nonverbal)
  • Telephone comm.
    • Auditory (vocal) presence from:
      • Auditory cues (verbal & nonverbal)
influences on it usage 4 physical vocal presence 2
Influences on IT Usage:4. Physical & Vocal Presence (2)
  • Challenges of visual/vocal presence:
    • Anxiety in social settings
    • Nonverbal comm. difficulties (discussed earlier)
    • Others’ interpretation of neurological differences:
      • Executive Functioning
      • Motor & Sensory
      • Social, Language, Comm.
    • Past interactions w/ peers & others
  • Can Lead to:
    • Peer & group rejection
    • Shunning & denigrating
    • Intolerant responses
influences on it usage 4 physical vocal presence 3
Influences on IT Usage:4. Physical & Vocal Presence (3)
  • Advantages of online presence:
    • Presence from visual verbal cues only
    • Words are powerful
      • Can evoke confidence, self-assurance
      • Esp. in individuals w/ strong verbal skills
  • Build self-confidence & self-esteem
    • Empower further online comm.
    • Empower physical/vocal interaction
influences on it usage 5 control over environment
Influences on IT Usage:5. Control over environment
  • Comm. control
    • Can leave or break from conversation easily
    • Walk away from computer/device, turn it off, etc.
  • Sensory control
    • Change sounds, smells, & sights in your room
    • Sensory environment not reflected in conversation
      • Unlike telephone conversation
  • Task control
    • Can do other tasks in the background
      • Ex. watching TV, listening to music, playing videogames. etc.
influences on it usage 6 anonymity other adv
Influences on IT Usage:6. Anonymity & Other Adv.
  • Anonymity:
    • Online comm. can be untied from activities/events of physical world
    • Can selectively present facets & details about yourself
  • Other:
    • Breaking past geographical & time barriers
    • Sharing information, documents, etc.
early online it usage autistic community
Early Online IT Usage:Autistic Community
  • ANI
    • ANI-L email list & spinoffs
    • website
  • INLV
    • email lists
    • website articles
  • IRC Usage
    • Starlink-IRC network channels
  • Personal websites of autistics
early online it usage usage themes
Early Online IT Usage:Usage Themes
  • Discussion of autistic identity & differences
  • Shared interests & passions
  • Advocacy & Creation of ANI
  • Creation of Autreat
early online it usage creation of autreat
Early Online IT Usage:Creation of Autreat
  • First autistic-run conference for autistics
  • First held in 1996 in NY State
    • 1996-2003 in NY State
    • 2004-present in Pennsylvania (Philly)
  • Influenced Autscape
      • First autistic-run conference for autistics in Europe
      • Established in the U.K. in 2005
  • Large IT Support:
    • Autreatinfo Yahoo Group/Email List
    • Website
current trends autistics it an overview
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:An Overview
  • Growth in Platforms
    • Online Communities
    • Social networking sites
    • IRC Discussion expansion
    • Blogging Networks & Blogs
  • Some Usage Themes
    • Clearing Misunderstandings & Myths
    • Autistic-run advocacy & social organizations
    • Discussion of shared interests & passions
    • Political Advocacy
    • Dating & Relationships
current trends autistics it online communities
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Online Communities
  • Many autistic-run communities spread throughout the Web
  • International presence
  • Largest communities
    • Wrongplanet.net (U.S.)
    • Autsider (International)
current trends autistics it profile of wrongplanet net
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT: Profile of WrongPlanet.net
  • Website: http://www.wrongplanet.net
  • Founded in June 2004 by 2 autistic teens
    • Alexander Plank in Virginia (now at George Mason Univ.)
    • Dan Grover in Vermont (now at Northeastern Univ.)
  • Rapid Growth (in 3 yrs.):
    • 11,000+ members
    • 25 forum sections
    • ~30,000 topics + ~700,000 posts
  • Mixed membership
    • Age range: ~ 7 to 60
    • Backgrounds: autistics (mostly), family members, professionals
current trends autistics it wrongplanet net creation
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT: Wrongplanet.net Creation
  • Challenges in collaboration for co-founders:
    • Distance Separation
      • 500+ miles between northern Virginia & Vermont
      • 10+ hour drive crossing 5+ states
    • Time & Schedule Separation
      • Rigid high school schedules
  • Internet-based coordination + Phone
    • Email (asynchronous)
    • Instant messaging (synchronous)
    • Website posts (asynchronous)
    • Telephone (synchronous)
current trends autistics it youtube
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:YouTube
  • High autism-related video content
    • Search for autism: ~6,000 videos
    • Search for autistic: ~4,000 videos
    • Search for Asperger: ~1,000 videos
    • Search for PDD-NOS: additional 63 videos
  • Highly Viewed Videos of Autistic Identity
    • Alex Olinkiewicz’s “In My Mind”
    • Amanda Baggs’ “In My Language”
    • Jeremy Pesner’s diversity monologue
    • Emily’s “I’m Autistic!”
  • The PosAutive Group
current trends autistics it youtube posautive
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:YouTube & PosAutive
  • Websites:
    • www.youtube.com/group/posautive
    • www.posautive.org
  • Created in 2006
  • 500+ Videos
    • Video expansion at rapid rate
      • New videos uploaded every few days
    • Subdivision into 5 sub-groups
      • Kids, Adults, Arts, Senses, & Savants
  • ~ 150 Members
    • Autistic Adults
    • Non-autistics who support autistic identity & neurodiversity
current trends autistics it facebook
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT: Facebook
  • 11+ autistic groups
  • Largest autistic groups (by membership):
    • Autistic Advocates (400+ members)
    • Asperger Makes Me Who I Am (~200 members)
    • People with Autism & Asperger’s Syndrome (130+ members)
    • Don’t Cure Me: Autistics & Aspies Against A Cure (80+ members)
  • ~ 100,000-300,000 autistic FB users
    • based on: .5% to 1.5% of population * 25 million FB users
current trends autistics it irc expansion
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:IRC Expansion
  • IRC Usage in mid to late 1990s:
    • Mainly two channels on Starlink-IRC
    • #asperger & #autism
  • Current IRC Usage:
    • Many channels (15+)
    • Autistic-run servers/networks
      • Autism Globe
      • ChatAutism
      • AutIRC
    • Presence on many general networks worldwide (10+)
current trends autistics it influential blogs
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Influential Blogs:
  • 5,000-6,000+ posts by aut-neurodiv. bloggers
  • Autistic Bloggers:
    • Autism Diva
    • Ballastexistenz.(Amanda Baggs)
    • Rett Devil’s Rants (Kassiane Sibley)
    • Whose Planet Is It Anyway? (Autistic BFH)
  • Pro-Neurodiversity Bloggers:
    • Left Brain/Right Brain (Kevin Leitch)
    • Autism Street
    • Joy Of Autism
    • Autism Vox/Autism Land
    • Natural Variation
current trends autistics it blogging networks
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT: Blogging Networks
  • The Autism Hub:
    • 50+ bloggers
    • blogging by austistics & neurodiversity supporters
    • More established blogs
  • AutiBlogger:
    • 20+ bloggers
    • blogging only by autistics
    • More emerging blogs
current trends autistics it blog discussions
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT: Blog Discussions
  • Neurodiversity
  • Dispelling junk science
  • Autism Myths
  • Postsecondary education & employment
  • Many Other topics
current trends autistics it usage themes
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Usage Themes
  • Clearing Misunderstandings & Myths
  • Autistic-run advocacy & social organizations
  • Discussion of shared interests & passions
  • Political Advocacy
  • Dating & Relationships
current trends autistics it misunderstandings myths
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Misunderstandings & Myths
  • Discussions by autistics of:
    • What it’s like to be autistic (from their perspective)
    • Others’ misunderstandings of their differences
    • Attacking widespread myths about autism
  • YouTube as a major outlet of expression
current trends autistics it youtube autistic identity
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:YouTube & Autistic Identity
  • Alex Olinkeiwicz, an autistic teen
    • “In My Mind”
    • video about experiences in life & school
    • ~ 700,000 views of the video + ~ 10,000 comments & ~ 7,000 ratings
  • Amanda Baggs, an autistic adult
    • “In My Language”
    • 250,000+ views of the video + ~ 1,000 comments & ~ 1,300 ratings
  • Jeremy Pesner’s diversity monologue
current trends autistics it autistic run organizations
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Autistic-Run Organizations
  • Autistic-run & collaborative advocacy & social group organizations: examples
    • Autism Network International (ANI)
    • The Autism National Committee
    • The Autistic Self-Advocacy Network (ASAN)
    • AASCEND
    • GRASP
    • AAGW
  • All depend highly on email list & websites
    • Discussion by membership
    • Articles, discussion forums, etc.
  • Online collaboration for autistic culture events
    • International Asperger’s Year (2006)
    • Autistic Pride Day
current trends autistics it political advocacy
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Political Advocacy
  • Case example of blogging posts by ABFH (The Autistic Bitch From Hell)
  • Blog commentary on Hillary Clinton
    • professed an intention to “cure and wipe out anything along the autism spectrum” in an announcement of autism legislation posted in a video clip on Youtube
    • Allied w/ Autism Speaks
  • Blog commentary on Barak Obama
    • supporter of changing society’s attitudes towards those of developmental difference
current trends autistics it dating
Current Trends, Autistics, & IT:Dating
  • Online Dating may be easier for autistics
    • advantages of online IT mentioned earlier
  • Autistic communities & individuals have launched dating websites
    • Wrongplanet.net’s Aspie Affection site
  • Challenges:
    • Real world tie-in to dating & relationships
    • Males & females
      • many identified/self-identified autistics are males
        • likely because of societal attitudes/stds/norms toward females
      • most autistics on the dating sites are males
      • autistic males seeking female autistic partners have a difficulty in finding partners
autistics emerging it use trends
Autistics & Emerging IT Use:Trends
  • Simulations & Virtual environments
    • Brigadoon community on Second Life
  • Connecting autistic adults w/ educators & service providers
    • Postsecondary education transition portal
  • Other
    • Autistic Adults Picture Project
    • Autistic Picture Page
    • Email Lists
    • Instant Messaging
autistics emerging it use autistic adults picture project
Autistics & Emerging IT Use: Autistic Adults Picture Project
  • Website: http://www.isn.net/~jypsy/AuSpin/a2p2.htm
  • Founded in 2004 by Janet Norman-Bain (aka jypsy)
  • ~200 autistic adults listed
  • Age range: 18 to 60s
  • Wide range of occupations: breakdancing, sculpting, cartooning, radio DJing, teaching, engineering, IT, science, music, etc.
autistics emerging it use the autistic picture page
Autistics & Emerging IT Use: The Autistic Picture Page
  • Website: www.picturepage.net
  • Photo album detailing aspects of by autistic youth & adults
  • Categories:
    • Humor
    • Absorption
    • Affection
    • Sensory
    • Religion
    • Everyday Lives
    • Contrasts
autistics emerging it use im email lists
Autistics & Emerging IT Use:IM & Email Lists
  • IM:
    • Natural social structure: buddy lists
    • Hybrid of synchronous & asynchronous comm.
      • Benefits of email & phone w/o voice
      • Can do other tasks in background
      • May be too fast-paced for some autistics
    • Integration w/ online communities
      • Wrongplanet.net
  • Email Lists:
      • Most email lists on Yahoo run by parents/professionals
      • Growing number of email lists run by autistics
autistics emerging it use postsec education portal
Autistics & Emerging IT Use: Postsec. Education Portal
  • Postsecondary education for autistic students
    • Media Attention
    • Attention from academia & professional world
  • Stakeholder Groups
  • My Proposed Studies
  • Portal Infrastructure
    • Technological
    • Social-cultural
postsec education autism media attention
Postsec. Education & Autism:Media Attention
  • “Students On The Spectrum”, TheNew York Times, Nov. 2006
  • “Asperger’s Confounds Colleges”, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004
  • “Autistic Alone On Campus:,” The Chicago Sun-Times, 2007
  • “An Asperger’s Life,” The Billings Gazette, 2005
  • “The Art of Living With Autism--University Student Draws On Ability”, The News-Sentinel, 2004
postsec education autism academia professional
Postsec. Education & Autism:Academia & Professional
  • Academia
    • Journal articles & conference papers
    • Growing source of interest
      • Many papers published in last 4-5 years
    • Still small num. of total papers
  • Professional World
    • Publicly available articles & podcasts
    • Again, growing interest
    • Still small num. of total papers
  • Books
    • 4 major books (2 from the U.K.)
    • 1 book chapter
postsec education autism major stakeholder groups 5
Postsec. Education & Autism:Major Stakeholder Groups (5)
  • Autistic Students
    • postsecondary level
    • secondary level
  • Educators & Administrators
    • postsecondary level
    • secondary level
  • Parents & Family Members
postsec education autism my proposed studies
Postsec. Education & Autism:My Proposed Studies
  • Interviews
    • Interviews w/ members of 5 stakeholder groups
    • face-to-face, telephone, IM, etc.
    • knowledge, experiences, perspectives
  • Postsecondary education planning documents
    • Secondary level (e.g. middle schools & high schools)
    • Postsecondary level (e.g. colleges & universities)
  • Autism-specific college/university programs
    • Planning & development process
    • Collaboration w/ secondary level
  • Secondary transition programs
    • Planning & development process
    • Collaboration w/ postsecondary level
postsec education autism portal tech infrastructure
Postsec. Education & Autism: Portal & Tech. Infrastructure
  • Informed by studies w/ stakeholder groups
  • Potential technology options:
    • Threaded Discussion Forums
    • User & Shared Blogging
    • Audio & Video Podcasting
    • Instant messaging/Private messaging
    • Email Discussion Lists
  • Connection to existing online communities
    • Autism-specific communities
    • Social networking sites (e.g. Facebook, Youtube)
postsec education autism portal social infrastructure
Postsec. Education & Autism:Portal & Social Infrastructure
  • Informed by studies w/ stakeholder groups
  • Social psychology theories of communities & online communities
    • Bond Theory & Identity Theory (Ren, Kraut, & Keisler, 2007)
      • group identity w/in the community
      • relationships between members & sub-groups
  • Theories of educational communities of practice
  • Social-cultural perspective of autistics
contacting me56
Contacting Me
references postsec education media
References: Postsec. Education (Media)
  • Moore, A. S. (Nov. 5, 2006) “Students On The Spectrum”, The New York Times
  • Farrell, E. F. (Oct. 8, 2004) “Asperger’s Confounds Colleges,” The Chronicle of Higher Education
  • Passantino, D. (March 11, 2007) “Autistic Alone On Campus:,” The Chicago Sun-Times
  • Pickett, M. (2005) “An Asperger’s Life,” The Billings Gazette
  • Boen, J. L. (Sept. 1, 2004), “The Art of Living With Autism--University Student Draws On Ability,” The News-Sentinel
references postsec education books
References:Postsec. Education (Books)
  • Prince-Hughes, D. (2002), Aquamarine Blue 5: Personal Stories of College Students with Autism
  • Palmer, A. (2005) Realizing the College Dream with Autism or Asperger’s Syndrome: A Parent’s GuideTo Student Success
  • Harpur, J., Lawlor, M., & Fitzgerald, M. (2002), Succeeding in College with Asperger Syndrome: A Student Guide
  • Jamieson, J. & Jamieson, C. (2004), Managing Asperger Syndrome At College And University: A Resource For Students, Tutors, And Support Services
references nonverbal comm
References:Nonverbal Comm.
  • Nowicki, S. & Duke, M. (2002), Will I Ever Fit In? The Breakthrough Program For Conquering Adult Dyssemia
  • Barnhill, G. P., Cook, K. T., Tebbenkamp, K., & Myles, B. M. (2002), “The Effectiveness Of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication For Adolescents With Asperger Syndrome And Related Pervasive Developmental Delays,” Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 112-118
  • Coning, C. & Magill-Evans, J. (2001), “Social And Language Skills In Adolescent Boys With Asperger Syndrome,” Autism, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 23-37
  • Scott, D. W. (1985), “Asperger’s Syndrome And Nonverbal Communication: A Pilot Study” The Journal of Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15., No. 3, 683-687
  • Howlin, P. (2000), “Outcome In Adult Life For More Able Individuals With Autism Or Asperger Syndrome,” Vol. 4, No. 63, pp. 63-84
  • Sperry, L. B. & Mesibov, G. B. (2005), “Perceptions of Social Challenges Of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder,” Autism, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 362-377
references auditory processing
References:Auditory Processing
  • Boddaert, N., Chabane, N., Belin, P., Bourgeois, M., Royer, V., Barthelemeny, C., Mouren-Simeoni, M., Phillipe, A., Brunelle, F., Samson, Y., & Zilbovicius, M. (2004), “Perception of Complex Sounds in Autism: Abnormal Auditory Cortical Processing in Children,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 161, No. 11, pp. 2117-2120
  • Gervais, H., Belin, P., Boddaert, N., Leboyer , M., Coez, A., Sfaello, I., Barthélémy C., Brunelle F., Samson Y., & Zilbovicius M. (2004), “Abnormal cortical voice processing in autism.” Natural Neuroscience, Vol. 7, No. 8, pp. 801-802
  • Jansson-Verkasalo, E, Ceponiene, R, Kielinen, M, Suominen, K, Jäntti, V, Linna, S. L., Moilanen, I., Näätänen R. (2003), “Deficient auditory processing in children with Asperger Syndrome, as indexed by event-related potentials,” Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 338, No. 3, pp. 197-200
references autism autistic community
References:Autism & Autistic Community
  • Sinclair, J. (2005) “Autism Network International: The Development Of A Community And Its Culture” http://web.syr.edu/~jisincla/History_of_ANI.html
  • Dekker, M. (1999), “On Our Own Terms: Emerging Autistic Culture”, autisticculture.com
  • Kopp, R. (2002) “Autism List Change Of Ownership” http://web.syr.edu/~rjkopp/data/farewell.html
  • Blume, H. (June 30, 1997) “Autistics Are Communicating in Cyberspace” The New York Times, http://nytimes.com/library/cyber/techcol/063097techcol.html
references alan turing
References:Alan Turing
  • O’Connell H., Fitzgerald M. (2003). Did Alan Turing have Asperger’s syndrome? Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 28 – 31.
  • Copeland, B. J. (2006), “The Modern History of Computing,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/computing-history
  • Elder, J. (2005), Different Like Me: My Book of Autism Heroes
  • James, I. (2005), Asperger Syndrome and High Achievement: Some Very Remarkable People
  • Leader, J. (2000), “Asperger Specialist, Dr. Tony Attwood in NY” Disabilities Awareness, The New York State Commission On Quality of Care
  • Tofts, D., Johnson, A., & Cavallaro, A. (2003), Prefiguring Cyberculture: An Intellectual History, MIT Press
references videos blogs
References:Videos & Blogs
  • Olinkiewicz, A. (2007), “In My Mind” [Video] Retrieved May 7, 2007 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbgUjmeC-4o
  • Pesner, J. (2007), “Autism: From The Source: A Monologue By Jeremy Pesner” [Video] Retrieved May 7, 2007 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dmhfm81Vxuo
  • Abfh (2007a) “Barack Obama: Campaign of Hope” http://autisticbfh.blogspot.com/2007/04/barack-obama-campaign-of-hope.html
  • Abfh (2007b) “Hillary Clinton’s Final Solution” http://autisticbfh.blogspot.com/2007/04/hillary-clintons-final-solution.html
references other
References:Other
  • Ren, Y., Kraut, R., & Keisler, S. (2007), “Applying Common Identity and Bond Theory to Design of Online Communities”, Organizational Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 377-408
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