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Global Ocean Circulation (2). Wind-driven gyre-scale circulation of the surface ocean and upper thermocline Global heat and freshwater water transport, conservation properties Water mass properties, polar convection and mixing, tracers, global thermohaline circulation.

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Global ocean circulation 2 l.jpg

Global Ocean Circulation (2)

  • Wind-driven gyre-scale circulation of the surface ocean and upper thermocline

  • Global heat and freshwater water transport, conservation properties

  • Water mass properties, polar convection and mixing, tracers, global thermohaline circulation

Focus on conservation principles:Balancing heat, salt, etc. into and out of ‘boxes” (control volumes)

MS320 Lecture 2008-10-27


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http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707


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http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/datasethttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707

World Ocean Atlas 1998 Annual


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Positive implies ocean warminghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707

Warming everywhere – of course


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Positive implies ocean warminghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707Negative implies ocean cooling

Why is net upward longwave less in WPWP?


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Positive implies ocean coolinghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707

Western boundary current have greatest air-sea temperature difference


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Positive implies ocean coolinghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707

COADS monthly climatology http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=18098


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Shaded is net coolinghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707


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Shaded is net coolinghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707


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Shaded is net coolinghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707


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Shaded is net coolinghttp://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707


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RT = Radiation total at the top of the atmosphere from Earth Radiation Budget ExperimentOT = ocean transport from net air-sea heat fluxAT = atmospheric transport (calculated from RT – OT)


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http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707


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Write equations for conservation of http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707(1) salt (2) volume

?

E-P-R = 4.6 x 104 m3/s


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E-P-R = 4.6 x 10http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=57074 m3/s


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http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/NVODS/servlets/dataset?catitem=5707



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units are 10 15 Watts (PW)


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Heat transport from ocean observations constrained by conservation principles

Atlantic has northward heat transport everywhere


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Atlantic heat transport is so different because there is a vertical over-turning circulation that shows up clearly in patterns of salinity


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Low salinity in north but no large negative E-P. What other freshwater sources are there?

South

North


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Shaded implies net precipitation freshwater sources are there?

Earth’s water budget is dominated by E-P over the ocean (80% occurs there)

Precipitation minus evaporation (m year-1)

Max P-E in East Pacific is not exactly over the equator – why?


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Surface Atlantic is saltier than the Pacific freshwater sources are there?


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