Grade 9 – Art History. Egyptian Art. Egyptian Art alternates between conservative and innovative The history of Egypt is divided into dynasties of rulers What is a dynasty? A succession of rulers from the same family or line is called a Dynasty. Introduction. Predynasty Old Kingdom
It was originally divided into territories
After some time the territories merged to form two rival kingdoms: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
Around 3000 B.C. the Upper Egyptian kings conquered Lower Egypt and combined the two realms.Predynasty
* Palette of King Na’rmer (both sides), Slate, c. 3150-3125 B.C.
As early as the Fourth Dynasty, wealthy individuals and kings would be buried in mastabasThe Start of the Pyramid...
Above ground, a mudbrick superstructure was built with an offering chapel attached
The burial chamber was below ground, surrounded by storerooms filled with goods for the use of the deceased in the Afterlife
Royal mastabas became quite large and their exteriors sometimes resembled that of a royal palace
During the Third Dynasty, the mastabas developed into Step Pyramids
The best known, and possibly the first, is that of King Djoser
King Djoser directed Imhotep to build a great complex which would contain his royal tomb
The sometimes resembled that of a royal palacemudbrickmastaba developed into a stone-built tower
It is a solid structure with underground burial chambers
It is considered the beginning of pyramid structuresThe Step Pyramid
* Imhotep, Pyramid of King Djoser, Saqqara, c. 2681-2662 B.C.
It declares the pharaoh’s supreme power and divine status sometimes resembled that of a royal palace
It served to bridge the gap with the heavens by serving as a “stairway” (steps) for Djoser
Djoser’s sometimes resembled that of a royal palace successors adapted the Step Pyramids to a smooth-sided shape
The Great Pyramids at Giza were built during the Fourth Dynasty
They originally had an outer casing of carefully dressed stone, which has disappeared except near the top of the pyramid of Khafre (the middle pyramid)The Great Pyramids
* The Great Pyramids, Giza:
(left) Menkaure, c. 2533-2515 B.C
(centre) Khafre, c. 2570-2544 B.C.
(right) Khufu, c. 2601-2528 B.C.
The three differ slightly from one another in scale sometimes resembled that of a royal palace
The burial chamber is located near the centre instead of underground
The Pyramids are surrounded by other pyramids and mastabas
Next to the valley temple of the Pyramid of Khafre stands the Great SphinxThe Great Sphinx
* The Great Sphinx, Giza, c. 2570-2544 B.C.
The head is wearing a the nemes (the striped head covering worn by kings)
Over time, damage has occurred to the face and body
The Sphinx has been undergoing restoration, however
The artist would have marked the surface of the block with a grid and would have drawn the front, top, and side views of the statue on it, then would have worked inward until the views met
These portraits were thought to be inhabited by the ka
Is a good example of the comparison between male and female beauty as interpreted by the artistKing Menkaure and His Queen
* King Menkaure and His Queen, Slate, c. 2515 B.C.
The most important change in this period was the shift from pyramids to funerary temples
They were designed to hold the mummies of the rulers and were constructed so that part of the temple was cut into the cliff and part was outside
*Plan of Mentuhotep's Mortuary Temple, Deir-el-Bahari, c. 2061-2010 B.C.
A revival of Middle Kingdom architectural forms to signify royal power, unity, and stability
Made of terraced walls, colonnades, sculptured reliefs, passageways, and large open terracesThe Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
*The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir-el-Bahari, c. 1478-1458 B.C.
During the reign of the Eighteenth Dynasty the emphasis of religion changed radically
Amenhotep IV attempted to elevate a single deity, the Aten, to the status of sole god and changed his name to Akhenaten(“Effective for the Aten”)
He closed the Amun Temples (which gained vast power and posed a threat to royal authority), and moved the capital the central EgyptKing Akhenaten
*Akhenaten and His Family, Limestone, c. 1355 B.C.
*Queen Nefertiti, Limestone, c. 1348-1336/5 B.C.
Helped restore the old religion
Died at the age of eighteen
Is the only pharaoh whose tomb has been discovered almost completely intactTutankhamun
After the restoration of the old religion, the rulers of the New Kingdom devoted their architectural energies to building huge temples of Amun
The centre of the Amun cult was located in the region of Thebes (specifically at Karnak and Luxor)
Vast temple complexes that were started in these areas in the Middle Kingdom were enlarged during the Nineteenth DynastyRamesses II
The temple complexes, completed under the rule of New Kingdom devoted their architectural energies to building huge temples of Ramesses II, were enclosed by high walls and consisted of a facade with a massive entranceway called a pylon
The pylon led to a series of courts and pillared halls, with the temple (a series of symmetrically arranged halls and chapels) just beyond it
Within the temple there would be a cult statue of the god the temple was dedicated to
*Temple of Ra, Luxor, c. 13th Century B.C.
From about 1069 B.C. to 332 B.C., Egypt saw a sweeping change of rulers and invasions which left the country divided and confused
From about 332 B.C. to 31 B.C., Egypt again was taken over and saw another change in rulers ranging from Alexander the Great to Ptolemy and, finally, to becoming a part of the Roman EmpireBeyond the New Kingdom