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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT. Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life Gambling was widespread Sports played varied by tribe. Archery Baggataway (lacrosse) Canoeing Fishing Footraces Shinny Swimming. NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS.

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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

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Early american physical education and sport l.jpg

EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT


Native americans sports l.jpg

Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life

Gambling was widespread

Sports played varied by tribe

Archery

Baggataway (lacrosse)

Canoeing

Fishing

Footraces

Shinny

Swimming

NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS


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PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COLONIES

  • Early settlers — survived with hunting, fishing, and work-related recreation

  • Puritans — forbid frivolous activities

  • Dutch — bowling; sleighing; horse racing

  • Virginians — fox hunting; horse racing; hawking; cockfighting

  • British influence — rounders; cricket; boxing; track and field


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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

  • Introduction of German gymnastics

  • 1823-1833 — Round Hill School —Joseph Cogswell and George Bancroft

    • Daily sports and gymnastics

  • 1825-1830 — Charles Beck — turner and friend of Friedrich Jahn

    • Established an outdoor gymnastics area

    • Translated Jahn's book


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GERMAN GYMNASTICS

  • In the late 1820s and 1830s, decline of interest in German gymnastics

  • Round Hill School closed

  • Newness wore off

  • Too much emphasis on nationalism and strength

  • Only German teachers

  • Revival of German gymnastics in the 1850s when immigrants moved to the Midwest

  • 1860 — 22 turnvereins; 1,672 members


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CATHARINE BEECHER

  • Director of the Hartford Seminary for Girls (1824) and the founder of the Western Female Institute (1837)

  • Calisthenics — a course of exercises designed to promote health and thus to secure beauty and strength

    • No special room or apparatus

    • For the whole family, but especially for females


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CATHARINE BEECHER

  • Principles from Per Henrik Ling's Swedish gymnastics

  • One of the first to actively struggle to establish physical education as a part of the school curriculum on a daily basis


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DIOCLESION LEWIS

  • Light gymnastics or exercises with wands, rings, bean-bags, dumbbells, and Indian clubs along with music — teacher directed exercises

  • Borrowed ideas from Catharine Beecher and Per Henrik Ling

  • 1861-1868 — Normal Institute for Physical Education in Boston — first teacher training school for physical education in the United States


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SWEDISH GYMNASTICS

  • Hartvig Nissen, a Norwegian, came to Washington, D.C. in 1883

    • Taught at Harvard Summer School, Sargent Normal School, and Posse-Nissen School

  • Baron Nils Posse after graduating from the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Sweden, came to Boston in 1885

    • Taught at the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics (1889-1890)

    • Established the Posse Normal School in 1890


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BOSTON NORMAL SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS — 1889

  • Founded by Mary Hemenway

  • Directed by Amy Morris Homans

  • Nils Posse was the first teacher

  • Purpose was to train teachers in Swedish gymnastics

  • Moved to Wellesley College as the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education in 1909


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BOSTON CONFERENCE ON PHYSICAL TRAINING — 1889

  • Purpose was “to bring to the attention of the general public and the leaders in the field the Swedish system.”

  • Speakers also for the German system, the Sargent system, and Hitchcock's program


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EDWARD HITCHCOCK


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EDWARD HITCHCOCK —AMHERST — (1861-1911)

  • Students attended lectures on health.

  • Students were required to attend 30-minute classes 4 times per week.

  • Each class participated in 20 minutes of light gymnastics and marching.

  • Students could spend 10 minutes on individual apparatus work or sports.

  • Anthropometrics — find the average, ideal college male using age, weight, height, chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, lung capacity, and pull-ups


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DUDLEY SARGENT


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DUDLEY SARGENT—HARVARD — (1879-1919)

  • Anthropometrics — to find the ideal student, but mostly to establish individualized goals and programs for each student (not a required program)

  • Apparatus — chest weights; chest pulleys; chest developers; leg machines; rowing machines — students used these machines in individualized programs

  • No Swedish or German gymnastics

  • Sports, such as boxing, rowing, and baseball, were promoted


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DUDLEY SARGENT

  • Sargent School for Physical Education — 1881 — initially taught women at Harvard Annex and later became a teacher training school for physical education

  • Harvard Summer School (1887-1932) —advanced teacher training program


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DELPHINE HANNA — OBERLIN — (1885-1920)

  • 1903 — Professor of physical education

  • Anthropometrics of college women

  • Instructed Luther Gulick, Thomas Wood, Jay Nash, and Jesse Williams


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WILLIAM ANDERSON

  • Brooklyn (Anderson) Normal School (1886-1953)

  • Chautaugua Summer School of Physical Education (1886-1930s)


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ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION — 1885

  • Founded by William Anderson

  • Major issues between 1885-1900

    • Anthropometrics

    • Battle of the Systems


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YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION AND YOUNG WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

  • YMCA founded in 1844 in England by George Williams

  • YMCA founded in 1851 in Boston

  • YWCA founded in 1866 in Boston by Mrs. Henry Durant


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YMCA AND YWCA

  • 1885 — YMCA Training School in Springfield — to train YMCA directors

    • Purposes of the YMCA — to develop the all-around man (intellectual, physical, and spiritual)

  • Central School of Hygiene and Physical Education was the YWCA training school


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BATTLE OF THE SYSTEMS

SYSTEMPURPOSE

  • German gymnasticsDeveloped individual abilities and healthy, strong youth for war using apparatus

  • Swedish gymnasticsPromoted health, correct expression, and beauty of performance using exact movement patterns

  • Hitchcock’s system Emphasized health through required exercises with light apparatus

  • Sargent’s system Advocated development of the body through individualized exercises on apparatus

  • Association gymnastics Contributed to the development of the all-around man


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PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION INSTITUTIONS

YEAR FOUNDER NAME PROGRAM

1861 Lewis Normal Institute for Light gymnastics Physical Education

1866 Turners Normal School of German gymnastics North American Gymnastic Union

1881 Sargent Sargent School for Theoretical and Physical Education practical curriculum

1885 YMCA YMCA Training School Association gymnastics

1886 Anderson Chautauqua Summer Advanced theoretical School of Physical and practical Education curriculum


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PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION INSTITUTIONS

YEAR FOUNDER NAME PROGRAM

1886 Anderson Brooklyn (Anderson) Theoretical and Normal School practical curriculum

1887 Sargent Harvard Summer School Advanced of Physical Education theoretical and practical curriculum

1889 Hemenway Boston Normal School Swedish gymnastics and Homans of Gymnastics

1890 Posse Posse Normal School Swedish gymnastics


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DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS

  • 1868 — New York Athletic Club founded

  • 1888 — Amateur Athletic Union started

  • 1852 — First intercollegiate sport for men (Harvard and Yale in rowing)

  • 1859 — First intercollegiate baseball game

  • 1869 — First intercollegiate football game

  • 1896 — First intercollegiate sport for women in basketball


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MEN'S AMATEUR ATHLETICS

  • Socially elite — horse racing, dancing, gambling, cards, and yachting

  • Baseball (1744 — England; not 1839 in the United States)

  • Cycling — late 1800s

  • Tennis — 1874 from England

  • Golf — Scotland

  • Cricket and croquet clubs — late 1800s

  • 1891 — Basketball — James Naismith at the YMCA Training School (height of basket; cagers; the “key”)

  • 1896 — Volleyball — William Morgan at a YMCA


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Dr. James Naismith's13 Original Rules of Basketball

  • The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.

  • The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands (never with the fist).

  • A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed if he tries to stop.

  • The ball must be held in or between the hands; the arms or body must not be used for holding it.

  • No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping, or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any player shall count as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made, or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute allowed.

  • A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of Rules 3,4, and such as described in Rule 5.

  • If either side makes three consecutive fouls, it shall count a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the mean time making a foul).

  • A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal.

  • When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field of play by the person first touching it. In case of a dispute, the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds; if he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on that side.

  • The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.

  • The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made, and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.

  • The time shall be two 15-minute halves, with five minutes' rest between.

  • The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In case of a draw, the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued until another goal is made.


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AMATEUR SPORTS—1850-1900s

  • Athletic clubs (especially the New York Athletic Club) — provided sports opportunities for members (especially track and field)

  • 1879 — Amateur Athletic Union (1888) —”check the evils of professionalism and promote amateur sport”

  • 1912 — 538 athletic clubs and the AAU had 19,000 members

  • Competition offered (and said to control) 40 sports; later 16 sports — especially basketball, track and field, and boxing


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AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS

  • Olympic team selection (1920s to the 1970s)

  • National Amateur Athletic Federation —1922

    • Sanctioning of events

    • Certification of records

  • 1978 — Amateur Sports Act


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WOMEN’S SPORTS

  • Colonial period

    • Horseback riding; dancing; fox hunting

  • Next 100 years

    • Riding; walking; dancing; calisthenics

  • Late 1800s

    • Croquet; cycling; hiking (with clothing restrictions)

    • Tennis — 1874

    • Gymnastics in bloomers


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