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An Invitation to Health. Chapter 15: Avoiding Infectious Diseases. Prepared by: Andrew Owusu Ph.D. Chapter 15 Objectives. Explain how different agents of infection spread disease. Describe how your body protects itself from infectious disease.

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An Invitation to Health

Chapter 15:

Avoiding Infectious Diseases

Prepared by: Andrew Owusu Ph.D.


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Chapter 15 Objectives

Explain how different agents of infection spread disease.

Describe how your body protects itself from infectious disease.

List ways to protect yourself from catching a cold or the flu and ways to feel better if you do catch one.

Name and describe some common infectious diseases.

Explain the dangers of overuse of misuse of antibiotics.

Name the infectious diseases for which you are most at risk, and list your strategies for avoiding them.


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How Do You Catch An Infection?

Animals

and

Insects

Water

People

Food


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Pathogens

Virus

Bacteria

Fungi

Protozoa

Rickettsia

How do infections occur?

Body has normal resistance to most pathogens


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4 Ways to Enter the Body

Direct

Fluid to Fluid

Indirect

Infected Surface

Airborne

Water Vapor

Vector-borne

Non-human Carrier


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For Infection to Occur…

  • Pathogen

  • Quantity

  • Vulnerability

  • Entry Site/Mode


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The Process of Infection

7. Termination

6. Recovery or

Relapse

5. Clinical Stage

4. Prodormal

Period

3. Incubation

Period

2. Infection

1. Exposure


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How Your Body Protects Itself

  • Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva, mucus, and cilia.

  • Lymphatic System Organs and Components:

    • Spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.

    • Lymphocytes (white blood cells)


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The Human Lymphatic System and Its Functions

Tonsils

• Defense against bacteria

and other foreign agents

Thymus gland

• Site where certain white

blood cells acquire means

to chemically recognize

specific foreign invaders

Right lymphatic duct

• Drains right upper portion

of body

Thoracic duct

• Drains most of body

Spleen

• Site where antibodies are

manufactured; disposal

site for old red blood cells

and foreign debris; site

of red blood cell formation

in the embryo

Lymph nodes

• Store protective cells and destroy pathogens

Some of the lymph vessels

• Return excess fluid

and reclaimable solutes

to the blood

Some of the lymph nodes

• Filter bacteria and many

other agents of disease

from lymph

Bone marrow

• Marrow in some bones are production sites for infection-fighting blood cells (as well as red blood cells and platelets)

Fig. 14-1, p. 395


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The Immune Response

Infected body cell

T

T

Pathogen

Antigen

Memory T cells remain in the body to kick-start the fight if the pathogen returns.

T

Macrophage

T

T

T

Antibody

NK

B

B

Natural killer cell

Fig. 15-2, p. 440


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Immune DisordersAllergies

  • Hypersensitivity to a substance in our environment or diet.

  • Symptoms

    • Itching, nasal congestion, eye irritation, coughing, wheezing, hives, vomiting, and diarrhea, and even sudden life-threatening collapse.

  • Treatments

    • Non-sedating oral medications, nasal sprays, and immunology.


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Immune DisordersAutoimmune Disorders

  • When the immune system declares war on the cells, tissues, or organs it normally protects.

  • Types

    • Graves disease, systematic lupus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

  • Causes

    • Genetics, drugs, chemicals, bacteria and viruses.

  • Treatments

    • Medications.

    • New diagnostic tests and treatments are on the horizon.


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Recommendations for Adult Immunizations

Tetanus, Diphtheria

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis A

Measles, Mumps and Rubella

Varicella (Chickenpox)

Meningococcal Disease

Influenza

Pneumococcal Disease



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Who Is At Highest Risk of Infectious Disease?

Children &

Their Families

The Elderly

The Chronically

Ill

Smokers & Those

With Respiratory

Problems

Individuals

Working With

Sick Individuals

Residing In Poorly

Ventilated

Buildings


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Common Infectious Diseases

  • Common Cold

  • Influenza

  • Meningitis

  • Hepatitis

  • Mononucleosis

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

  • Pneumonia

  • Tuberculosis

  • Group A and Group B Strep Infection

  • Toxic Shock Syndrome

  • Insect- and Animal-Borne Infections

  • New Infectious Treats


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Common Cold Facts

  • There are 200 distinct cold viruses.

  • Americans come down with 1 billion colds annually.

  • The common cold results in ~20 million lost work days and 22 million days of absence from school.

    Spring, Summer and Early Fall Colds

    • Rhinoviruses causing symptoms above the neck

      • Stuffy nose, headache and runny nose.

        Winter Colds

    • Adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, coronaviruses and influenza viruses.

    • These viruses are more likely to get into the bronchi and trachea and cause more fever and bronchitis.


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Treatments for the Common Cold

Limit Aspirin and Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

  • Suppresses important antibodies and increases symptoms.

  • Reye’s syndrome

    Ibuprofen

    Antihistamines

  • Watch for drowsiness

  • Individuals with high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, or thyroid disorders should limit products containing pseudoephedrine.

    Limit Multisymptom Medications

    Alternative Remedies

  • ? Vitamin C, Echinacea, zinc lozenges






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Individuals Who Should Get Flu Shots

  • Individuals aged 65 years and older.

  • Residents in long term care facilities.

  • Individuals aged 2 to 64 years with chronic health conditions.

  • Children aged 6 to 23 months.

  • Pregnant women.

  • Health-care personnel

  • Household contacts and caregivers.
























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When someone with

active tuberculosis

exhales, coughs, or

sneezes, tuberculosis

is expelled in tiny

airborne droplets that

others may inhale.

How Tuberculosis Spreads

The TB bacteria

lodge mainly

in the lungs,

where they

slowly multiply,

creating patches,

then cavities, in

the lungs.

Other parts of

the lung are

affected, including

bronchi and the

lining of the lung.

If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and

damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver and kidneys,

spine, and skin.

Fig. 14-4, p. 405







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New Infectious Threats

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  • Bioterror Threats

    • Anthrax

    • Smallpox

    • Botulism

    • Tularemia


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Reproductive and Urinary Tract Infections


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The Best Defense

  • Eat a balanced diet.

  • Avoid fatty foods.

  • Get enough sleep.

  • Exercise regularly.

  • Don’t smoke.

  • Control your alcohol intake.

  • Wash your hands frequently.

  • Don’t share food, drinks, silverware or glasses.

  • Spend as little time as possible in crowds.

  • Use tissues rather than handkerchiefs.

  • Avoid irritating air pollutants.


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