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Bureaucracy PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Bureaucracy. Federal Bureaucracy. Largest part of the federal government Fastest growing part of the federal government Least subject to democratic control. Overview. Rationale For Organization Of Cabinet Independent Executive Agencies Independent Regulatory Agencies

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Bureaucracy

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Bureaucracy


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Federal Bureaucracy

  • Largest part of the federal government

  • Fastest growing part of the federal government

  • Least subject to democratic control


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Overview

  • Rationale For

  • Organization Of

    • Cabinet

    • Independent Executive Agencies

    • Independent Regulatory Agencies

    • Government Corporations

  • Staffing

  • Procedures


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Rationale

  • Promote more efficient distribution of government services

  • Look at basic bureaucratic structure


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NJCU

COE

CAS

CPS

Sciences

Arts

Natural

Social

Anthro

Soc

Poli

Econ

Psych

Amer Gov

ComparativeGovernment

IR

Theory


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Rationale

  • Efficiency obtained through:

    • Hierarchy/Chain of Command

    • Specialization and Expertise

    • Impersonal Relations

    • Standard Operating Procedures


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Cabinet Departments

  • Cabinet Departments

    • 15 Cabinet Departments

      AgricultureCommerceDefense

      EducationEnergyHHS

      Homeland SecHUDInterior

      JusticeLaborState

      TransportationTreasuryVA


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Cabinet Departments

  • Defense is the largest in terms of personnel (664,524) and budget

  • Education is the smallest department (4,567)

    • FY 2007 Budgets by Department


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Independent Executive Agencies

  • IEAs are agencies who report directly to the president but stand independent of the federal bureaucracy

    e.g.,

    • CIA

    • EPA

    • NASA


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Independent Regulatory Agency

  • Agency substantially independent of both the rest of the executive branch and Congress

  • Usually dedicated to regulating a narrow area of public policy

    • e.g., Fed FCC FTC NLRB, EEOC


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Government Corporations

  • Government owned business designed as a for-profit enterprise

  • e.g., FDIC, TVA, USPS, AmTrak, PBS


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Staffing

  • Spoils System

    • Job appointments given over to executive branch

    • Jobs awarded on the basis of political ties and fealty


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Staffing

  • Merit System

    • 1883 Pendleton Act (Civil Service Reform Act)

      • Jobs awarded on basis of merit/qualifications

      • Created Civil Service Commission to administer personnel decisions (hire/pay)


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Staffing

  • Civil Service Reform Act (1978)

  • Merit Systems Protection Board

Office of Personnel Mangement


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Functions

  • Bureaucracies are in some ways a “mini” government unto unthemselves

    • administrative

      • implementation of legislative and executive policies

    • quasi legislative

      • proposed rules

    • quasi judicial

      • enforcement of rules


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Functions

  • Bureaucrats can have important role in shaping public policy

    • they can support the president with information

    • they can shape presidential options with information provided

    • they can undermine the president with information and actions


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Functions

  • “Whistleblower” protection

    • Enacted originally in 1989, renewed and amended since then

    • Protects employees who disclose wasteful spending, discrimination, unsafe working conditions, illegal activities, etc. at place of employment, including federal agencies


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Functions

  • Bureaucrats have a crucial role to play in development of policy considerations

  • Main players in public policy are:

    • legislative

    • executive

    • interest groups involved on issue


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Functions

Bureaucrats

Congressional committees

Interest Groups


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Functions

  • “Public” policy becomes less concerned over issues related to the broad public

  • Specific groups affected by the proposed policy and policy changes dictate public policy

  • Once programs are created, it is very difficult to remove them


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Functions

Angora wool subsidies

  • 1954 National Wool Act

  • 1960 wool removed from list of “strategic materials”

  • 1989 recommendation to kill program costing $230 million/year (DOA)

  • 1993 Senate passed recommendation to kill

  • 1994 main program killed, but...

  • 2008 program continues in downscaled form (special assistance loans to producers)


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Bureaucratic Reform

  • Sunset Laws

    • Timed phase out of government programs unless have explicit renewal provision enacted

  • Sunshine Laws

    • Open bureaucratic proceedings to greater public scrutiny and access

  • Privatization

    • Turn government programs over to the private sector

    • Greater efficiency of market forces will produce better service at a cheaper cost to taxpayers


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