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CHAPTER. 6. QUIT. Ancient Rome and Early Christianity , 500 B.C. – A.D. 500. Chapter Overview. Time Line. The Romans Create a Republic. 1. SECTION. The Roman Empire Brings Change. 2. SECTION. MAP. The Rise of Christianity. 3. SECTION. The Decline of the Roman Empire. 4.

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Presentation Transcript
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CHAPTER

6

QUIT

Ancient Rome and Early

Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500

Chapter Overview

Time Line

The Romans Create a Republic

1

SECTION

The Roman Empire Brings Change

2

SECTION

MAP

The Rise of Christianity

3

SECTION

The Decline of the Roman Empire

4

SECTION

Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization

5

SECTION

GRAPH

Visual Summary

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CHAPTER

6

Chapter Overview

HOME

Ancient Rome and Early

Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500

Rome becomes the center of an empire, which aids in the spread of Christianity. Eventually the Western Empire falls, while the Eastern Empire remains. The Greco-Roman culture helps shape Western thought and culture for centuries.

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CHAPTER

6

HOME

Ancient Rome and Early

Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500

Time Line

509 B.C.Rome becomes a republic.

218 B.C.In the Second Punic War, Hannibal invades Italy.

A.D.284 Diocletian, who will divide the Roman Empire, becomes emperor.

500 B.C.

A.D. 500

264 B.C.The First Punic War with Carthage begins.

44 B.C.Conspirators kill Julius Caesar.

A.D.476 Western Roman Empire falls with the ouster of the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus.

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1

HOME

The Romans Create

a Republic

Key Idea

The early Romans establish a republic on the Italian peninsula, conquer all of Italy, and defeat Carthage in a series of wars. The Romans create an extensive trade network.

Overview

Assessment

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1

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Romans Create

a Republic

Overview

•republic

•patrician

•plebeian

•tribune

•consul

•senate

•dictator

•legion

•Hannibal

•Scipio

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The early Romans established a republic, which grew powerful and spread its influence.

Some of the most fundamental values and institutions of Western civilization began in the Roman Republic.

Assessment

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1

1

Section

Assessment

HOME

The Romans Create

a Republic

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the main events that mark the growth of Rome into a powerful republic.

509 B.C. Romans overthrow Etruscan king.

Republic established.

451 B.C. Twelve Tables created.

265 B.C. Italy conquered.

264-146 B.C. Punic Wars fought.

70 B.C. Rome controlled

the Mediterranean.

continued . . .

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1

HOME

The Romans Create

a Republic

1

Section

Assessment

2. Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government or to its army? Why?

THINK ABOUT

•the structure of the republic

•how citizenship spread

•Rome’s policies toward conquered peoples

ANSWER

The army’s conquests expanded the territory of Rome, which increased Rome’s power and wealth. However, the republic that Rome established gave it a stability that allowed it to grow by absorbing conquered peoples or making them allies.

Possible Response:

continued . . .

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1

HOME

The Romans Create

a Republic

1

Section

Assessment

3. How did the office of dictator contribute to the balance and stability of the Roman Republic? THINK ABOUT

•the role of the dictator

•the power of consuls

•the need for speedy decisions in a crisis

ANSWER

A dictator could make the speedy decisions needed in a crisis, whereas the consuls could veto each other’s decisions, and the senate and assembly might take too long to make critical decisions.

Possible Response:

End of Section 1

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2

HOME

The Roman Empire

Brings Change

MAP

Key Idea

Problems in the republic lead to civil war. The republic collapses, and Julius Caesar becomes dictator. After Caesar’s assassination, Octavian emerges as Rome’s first emperor.

Overview

Assessment

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2

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Roman Empire

Brings Change

MAP

Overview

•civil war

• Julius Caesar

• triumvirate

• absolute ruler

• Augustus

•Pax Romana

• gladiator

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The creation of the Roman Empire transformed Roman government, society, economy, and culture.

The Roman Empire has served throughout history as a model of political organization and control.

Assessment

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2

2

Section

Assessment

Changes in Rome

HOME

The Roman Empire

Brings Change

MAP

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain how Rome changed during the Pax Romana.

  • Rome becomes an empire with one ruler.
  • Civil service system established.
  • Empire expands.
  • Roman way of life extends to the provinces.
  • Roman trade reaches India and China.
  • Road network increases trade.
  • Women have more freedom.
  • Religions of southwestern Asia become influential.
  • Gap between rich and poor increases.

continued . . .

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2

HOME

The Roman Empire

Brings Change

MAP

2

Section

Assessment

2. What role did Julius Caesar play in the decline of the republic and the rise of the empire?THINK ABOUT

•the problems facing the republic

•how Caesar helped restore order

•Caesar’s defiance of the senate

•Caesar’s rule as dictator

ANSWER

Caesar helped restore order, then seized power. His occupation of Rome and his rule as dictator effectively ended the republic.

Possible Response:

End of Section 2

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3

HOME

The Rise of

Christianity

Key Idea

Christianity begins with the teachings of Jesus in Judea. The new religion spreads quickly throughout the empire.

Overview

Assessment

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3

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Rise of

Christianity

Overview

•Jesus

• apostle

• Peter

• Paul

• Diaspora

• bishop

• pope

• Constantine

• heresy

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Christianity arose in Roman-occupied Judea and spread throughout the Roman Empire.

As the world’s most widespread religion, Christianity guides the lives of millions today.

Assessment

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3

HOME

The Rise of

Christianity

3

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe five events that led to the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire.

Theodosius makes Christianity the empire’s official religion.

Rome takes over

Jewish kingdom.

Jesus gathers many followers.

Paul and other missionaries spread Jesus’ message.

Constantine issues

Edict of Milan.

continued . . .

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3

HOME

The Rise of

Christianity

3

Section

Assessment

2. Do you think Christianity would have developed in the same way if it had arisen in an area outside the Roman Empire? Explain. THINK ABOUT

•Jesus’ growing popularity

•the effect of actions Rome took against Jesus and his followers

•the depth of belief of Jesus’ followers

•the advantages of being part of a vast empire

ANSWER

  • No. Christianity would have grown more slowly outside the empire.
  • Yes. It would have spread just as fast or faster without Roman persecutions.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .

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3

HOME

The Rise of

Christianity

3

Section

Assessment

3. Who do you think did more to spread Christianity—Paul or Constantine? THINK ABOUT

•Paul’s travels

•the opening of Christianity to the Gentiles

•Constantine’s power as an emperor

ANSWER

  • Paul did more to spread Christianity because he carried it throughout the empire and welcomed Gentiles.
  • Constantine did more because he accepted Christianity and ended the persecution.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 3

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4

HOME

The Decline of the

Roman Empire

Key Idea

The Roman Empire splits in two. Economic, military, and political decay and outside invaders bring down the Western Roman Empire, but the eastern half survives.

Overview

Assessment

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4

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Decline of the

Roman Empire

Overview

• inflation

• mercenary

• Diocletian

• Constantinople

• Alaric

• Attila

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Internal problems and nomadic invasions spurred the division and decline of the Roman empire.

The decline and fall of great civilizations is a repeating pattern in world history.

Assessment

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4

Decline of the Roman Empire

Effects

Causes

Inflation

Untrustworthy army

Decreased citizen interest in government

HOME

The Decline of the

Roman Empire

4

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of each of the effects listed below.

Gold and silver squandered; coins worth less

Soldiers fought for money.

Citizens had little influence; officials

burdened with debts. The empire couldn’t

maintain its defenses; army was weakened.

continued . . .

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4

HOME

The Decline of the

Roman Empire

4

Section

Assessment

2. How do you think the splitting of the empire into two parts helped it survive for another 200 years?

THINK ABOUT

•the differences between the eastern and western halves of the empire

•the advantages of a smaller empire

ANSWER

The wealthier eastern half included most of the empire’s great cities and trading centers. By creating a smaller area that was easier to defend, Constantine was able to preserve the empire for another 200 years.

Possible Response:

End of Section 4

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5

HOME

Rome and the Roots of

Western Civilization

GRAPH

Key Idea

Greco-Roman culture continues to influence the arts, science and technology, government, and legal systems of the Western world and other parts of the globe.

Overview

Assessment

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5

TERMS & NAMES

•Greco-Roman culture

• Pompeii

• Virgil

• Tacitus

• aqueduct

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Rome and the Roots of

Western Civilization

GRAPH

Overview

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The Romans developed many ideas and institutions that became fundamental to Western civilization.

Evidence of Roman culture is found throughout Europe and North America and in Asia and Africa.

Assessment

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5

Fine Arts

Literature

Engineering

Law

HOME

Rome and the Roots of

Western Civilization

GRAPH

5

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. For each of the categories below, list the accomplishments of Roman culture.

Realistic sculpture,

murals,

mosaics

Histories,

Virgil’s Aeneid,

Ovid’s Amores,

Tacitus’s

Annals and Histories

Arch,

dome,

aqueduct,

roads

Equal treatment before the law, innocent until proven guilty, burden of proof on the accuser, unfair laws set aside

continued . . .

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5

HOME

Rome and the Roots of

Western Civilization

GRAPH

5

Section

Assessment

2. Which principle of law do you think has been Rome’s greatest contribution to modern legal systems? THINK ABOUT

•equality before the law

•innocent until proven guilty

•unfair laws could be set aside

ANSWER

  • •Equal treatment before the law because it erases class differences.
  • Innocent until proven guilty because there can be no punishment without conviction.
  • •Unfair laws can be set aside because bad laws can be changed.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .

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5

HOME

Rome and the Roots of

Western Civilization

GRAPH

5

Section

Assessment

3. Why do you think the Greek philosophy of Stoicism was so appealing to Romans? THINK ABOUT

•Stoic philosophy

•the Roman citizen-soldier

•Roman law

ANSWER

Stoicism emphasized virtue, duty, and endurance, qualities that would appeal to the citizen-soldier. Also, Stoics believed that human laws should be reasonable and just, concepts that influenced Roman legal systems.

Possible Response:

End of Section 5

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