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AFRICAN LEADERS CONFERENCE. HUMAN RIGHTS AND RULE OF LAW Ann Ishaku April, 5, 2007 . HISTORICAL VIEW OF LEADERSHIP. Most Nations Were Kingdoms With Kings Only 2 Stateless Societies in Nigeria Out of Over 300 Tribes Kings were the Law & Had Life and Death Powers Over their Subjects

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AFRICAN LEADERS CONFERENCE

HUMAN RIGHTS AND RULE OF LAW

Ann Ishaku

April, 5, 2007


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HISTORICAL VIEW OF LEADERSHIP

  • Most Nations Were Kingdoms With Kings

  • Only 2 Stateless Societies in Nigeria Out of Over 300 Tribes

  • Kings were the Law & Had Life and Death Powers Over their Subjects

  • Colonial Masters Used this for Their Indirect Rule – they were also above the law


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NIGERIA’S EVOLVING GOVERNANCE

  • British Colony 1914-1960

  • Independence 1960

  • Parliamentary System 1960-1966

  • Military Dictatorship 1966-1979

  • Presidential Democracy 1979-1983

  • Military Dictatorship 1983-1999

  • Presidential Democracy 1999-2007


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Geographical Features of Nigeria

  • Located in West of Africa

  • Divided in 3 Parts by Rivers Niger and Benue

  • Rain Forest and Swamps in the South and Savannah Land in the North

  • Land Boundaries; Benin, Cameroon Niger, Chad and Atlantic Ocean


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GENERAL FACTS ON NIGERIA

  • AREA- 923,768sq km / 356,669sq m.

  • POPULATION: 140 m.

    • 3rd Fastest Growing Population In The World

    • Multi-ethnic Society of over

      300 Groups/ Tribes

  • RELIGION: Christianity, Islam And Traditional

    • Very Strong Attachment To Ethnic

      And Religious Biases

  • LITERACY: 68% of age 15-above

  • LIFE EXPECTANCY: 43 for men & women

  • 37% of the population live in extreme poverty


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FEATURES OF 29 YEARS MILITARY DICTATORSHIP

  • Do not recognize the Rule of Law

  • Illegal Unconstitutional Policies/ Changes

  • Degradation of Political, Social, and Economical Standards

  • Take over of Political and Traditional Offices

  • Extremely Rich Military


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MILITARY RULE

Forceful Take Over Of Government.

No Separation Of Power - No Checks And Balances

Strong Central Government

President Appoints Governors, Judges, And Top Government Officials In Federal, States, And Local Governments

CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

ELECTED GOVERNMENT

THREE TIERS OF GOVERNMENT:

1. FEDERAL President, Vice and Executive Council

2. STATES (36)+ Abuja Governors, Deputies And Executive Council

3. LOCAL (774)Chairmen And Councilors


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MAKES LAWS (DECREES / EDICTS)

Suspends All Constitutional Provisions Dealing With Their Authority, And Citizens Human Rights

Create Tribunals To Try Selected Cases

Oust Courts’ Jurisdiction Over Cases

Can Arrest And Detain Without Trial Decree 2, And Abiola

No Respect For Rule Of Law

Disobedience To Court Orders

CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY: Distinct And Separate Arms

B. THREE ARMS OF GOVERNMENT

1. EXECUTIVE: Federal, State, Local Governments


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Restricted Access Of Funds And Information To Citizens

Very Few In Governance Positions

Absolute Power Corrupting Absolutely


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