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ADHD and ADD. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder. What is ADHD?. Biologically based behavioral disorder that affects between three and six percent of elementary school-aged children in U.S.

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ADHD and ADD

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder


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What is ADHD?

  • Biologically based behavioral disorder that affects between three and six percent of elementary school-aged children in U.S.

  • Defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM –VR) of the American Psychiatric Association

  • ADD is attention deficit without the hyperactivity.


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Causes of ADHD

  • Environmental factors

  • Genetics

  • Brain disturbances


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ADHD

  • All age groups can be affected, from young children to adults.

  • More boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD.


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ADHD

  • To be diagnosed with ADHD:

  • A child must exhibit excessive and/or inappropriate overactivity, inattentiveness or impulsiveness for a period of more than six months.

  • A child may exhibit all of these traits, or just one or two, to be diagnosed with the condition.


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Behaviors of an ADHD Child in the Classroom

  • ADHD children commonly fail to complete homework assignments

  • Inattentive to classroom instruction

  • Often write illegibly

  • Frequently provoke others physically

  • Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat (in adolescents this may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness).


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Behaviors

  • Has difficulty remaining seated when required to do so

  • Is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli

  • Has difficulty awaiting turn in games or group situations

  • Often blurts out answers to questions before they have been completed


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Behaviors

  • Has difficulty following through on instructions from others (not due to oppositional behavior or failure of comprehension) e.g. fails to finish chores

  • Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities

  • Often shifts from one uncompleted activity to another


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Behaviors

  • Has difficulty playing quietly

  • Often talks excessively

  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others, e.g. butts into other children’s games

  • Often does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or her


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Behaviors

  • Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities at school or at home (e.g. toys, pencils, books).

  • Often engages in physically dangerous activities without considering possible consequences (not for the purpose of thrill-seeking) e.g. runs into street without looking.


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How is ADHD Diagnosed?

  • Most accurate diagnosis is from a team of child-care professionals carefully evaluating a child over a period of time in a variety of settings.

  • Process usually includes education, psychological and medical assessments.


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Brain scan images produced by in diagnosispositron emision tomography (PET) show differences between an adult with Attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (right) and an adult free of the disease (left).


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How is ADHD Treated? in diagnosis

  • Multimodal therapy considered the best treatment approach:

    • Psychological counseling

    • Special education

    • Medication

      • Dexedrine

      • Ritalyn

      • Cylert


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