The Progressive Era

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The Progressive Era

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1. The Progressive Era

3.

4. What Did the Progressives Want?

5. Economic Reform

6. Political Reform

7. Social Reform

8. Features of Progressivism

9. The Progressive Presidents

10. Theodore Roosevelt

12. William Howard Taft

13. Woodrow Wilson

15. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 3. Attitudes about change Populists - radical Populists scared off middle class - feared inflation scared off business leaders - feared labor unrest made Progressives look moderate by comparison Progressives - mainstream willing to compromise make the existing system work better from within sought consensus - broad agreement on how to improve society - willing to work with farmers and workers

16. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 4. Result Populists - failed scared off middle class - feared inflation scared off business leaders - feared labor unrest made Progressives look moderate by comparison Progressives - succeed in some ways by 1900 a strong American economy made the timing right correct the political, economic and social abuses of the Gilded Age

17. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 4. Result Progressives - succeed in some ways Accepted industrialization and urbanization liked benefits and the higher standard of living Sought to correct their evils What are government's obligations active vs. laissez faire democracy vs. government by the rich for the rich

18. The Muckrakers writers who exposed corruption and dishonesty in business and politics - named by T.R. made the public aware of the need for change S.S. McClure 1902 - McClure's Magazine began publishing muckraker articles dealing with all kinds of different issues provided motive for the movement paid muckrakers to research and uncover corruption Cosmopolitan helped to unite farmers and workers with the middle class opponents - the rich

19. Urban Reformers

20. Jane Addams (1860-1935) Hull House 1889 - Chicago settlement house addressed problems of the slums day care kindergarten public parks boy's clubs Noble Peace Prize - 1931 child labor sweatshops Social Gospel garbage public health housing education services to the poor

21. Jacob Riis (1849-1914) How the Other Half Lives - 1890 used photography of slums in NYC to show terrible living conditions influenced TR - called 1st muckraker theory - poverty is a major cause of crime proposed - water purification, parks, playgrounds, boys clubs

22. Black Civil Rights The Problem Jim Crow Laws - Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson - 1896 Separate But Equal Define Equal Disenfranchisement KKK intimidation Lynchings - 200 per year during Gilded Age Poll Tax Literacy Test

23. Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Policy of Gradualism - Stressed earning respect - patience - wanted "gradualism” Up From Slavery Founded Tuskegee Institute Stressed vocational education for blacks (especially agriculture) Stressed ignoring segregation - changes would come when earned Stressed patience

24. W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) The Soul of Black Folks 1st black to graduate from Harvard (phD) opposed Washington's approach as too passive Policy of Immediacy argued for a black college educated elite to fight segregation through the system stressed black pride 1905 - Niagara Movement Helped to found NAACP (1909) DuBois - editor of The Crisis - NAACP journal 1st ct. victory - 1915

25. Women's Rights Goals Suffrage - voting rights for women In the labor force - better pay, more opportunity To end "second class citizenship" (to be able to do the things in public that men could)

26. Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) helped led the movement to gain women the right to vote for 40 years along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Falls Declaration - 1848 Founded National Woman Suffrage Association - 1869 women could vote in 4 western states by the time she stepped down Accomplishment - 19th Amendment - 1920

27. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) 1900 - became leader of National American Women's Suffrage Association replacing Anthony Was successful in completing Anthony's goal of obtaining the 19th Amendment helped by WWI Founded League of Women Voters to make sure that women voted intelligently In the 1920 election most women voted exactly the same way their husbands did

28. Alice Paul (1885-1977) 1913 - created Women's Party 1917 - women picketed the White House (WWI) criticism of Wilson actually slowed the 19th amendment continued to fight for women's rights after passage of 19th amendment 1923 - proposed an Equal Rights Amendment still not ratified today she was still around for the revival of the women's movement in the 1960s

29. Margaret Sanger birth control busted for sending obscene literature through the mails...info about birth control Control of their bodies

30. Temperance Movement arguments against alcohol hurt those who drank - kept them from reaching their potential hurt employers absenteeism injuries on the job mistakes at work excessive drinking caused many social problems breakup of family abuse unemployment poverty Francis Willard - Women's Christian Temperance Union - 1874 movement goes back to the 1820s Other health issues 13 states outlawed smoking by 1913 cigarette taxes replaced those laws because they were easier to enforce

31. Anti-Saloon League - 1893 hatchet wielder started with state and local laws much of the country dry before WWI WWI added patriotism to the reasons for the amendment 18th amendment - 1919 - Prohibition prohibit the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages Volstead Act - enforced prohibition on a national level

32. Economic Goals Economic Progress - Efficiency Believed that material progress achieved at too high a cost they believed that "progress" was basically good wanted "orderly progress" toward a better America efficiency - correct abuses in the system by industry and government focused on business practices that affected their life directly monopolies - destroyed small middle class businesses tariffs - raised middle class prices quality of products purchased by middle class customers

33. they were efficient administrators whose ability kept them in power Abandon laissez faire Big business choking free competition People had little protection against exploitation Regulated capitalism (some advocated socialism) business license public utilities cities regulate them take them over (socialism) rr, insurance companies, telephone states regulate them

34. Need to redistribute the wealth (1893 - 9% had 71% of national wealth) Graduated Income Tax

35. Economic Fairness and Honesty Control "special interests" (like protective tariffs) competition standard of living bus. expansion better distribution of wealth conservation of natural resources, create jobs) business mistreated workers and mislead customers regulation - restore opportunity to business

36. Business Reform

37. Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) The Jungle - 1906 most famous muckraker description of Chicago meatpacking industry Accomplishment - Pure Food and Drug Acts - 1906 Meat Inspection Act - 1906

38. John Spargo The Bitter Cry of the Children exposed horrible conditions of child labor accomplishment - Keating-Owen Child Labor Laws

39. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944) The History of Standard Oil Company - 1902-1904 exposed business practices of John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil worked for him for 6 years Accomplishments Clayton Anti-Trust Act Federal Trade Commission Marie and Bessie Van Vorst The Woman Who Toils - 1903 startling book about the conditions of women's labor

40. Francis Perkins 1910 - executive secretary of New York Consumers' League 1911 - witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire 500 workers trapped 146 died the company was acquitted of any crime had locked the fire escapes became executive secretary of New York Commission on Safety took lawmakers to visit sweatshops and factories led to improved health and safety rules including fire codes shorter work week for women (48 instead of 54) 1933 - 1945 - Secretary of Labor first woman Cabinet member

41. Political Reform Lincoln Steffens - local government The Shame of the Cities - 1904 focused on corruption, bribery, and theft in local govt.by political machines and bosses Accomplishments - held out some mayors as models for others to follow

42. Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones applied golden rule in business and in politics Social Gospel business man gave his workers paid vacations eight-hour work day 1897 - 1904 - mayor of Toledo, Ohio - policies playgrounds a golf course free kindergartens night school for adults minimum wage for city workers $1.50 (2x normal) homeless shelter open air - non-denominational church

43. Seth Low Brooklyn mayor - 1881 - 1885 set up Bureau of Charities - 1878 improved school system used merit system for jobs President of Columbia University - 1890 - 1901 adult education program improved graduate school New York City mayor - 1901 - 1903 replaced Tammany Hall bosses improved police improved civil service 1907 - president of National Civic Federation 1914 - president New York Chamber of Commerce

44. Tom Johnson Mayor of Cleveland City ownership of utilities increased vigilance over corporate political connections

45. Commission System - 1901 - Galveston (400 by 1920) non-partisan elections - five board members each chosen based on expertise and put in charge of a particular department (police, sanitation, public works, etc.) to "fix" responsibility and hurricane had destroyed 1/6 population 1/3 property "get things done" (after crisis, kept the system) Steffens spread the use of this system to middle size cities it did not work well in large ones by WWI, over 400 cities adopted it

46. City Manager System - 1908 - Staunton, Va. Board or (elected) City Council hired a professional non-political manager to run city affairs; by WWI, some 250! Managers job was to solve the city's problems rather than the mayor

47. Hiram W. Johnson (1910 - 1918) - governor of California eight-hour work day for women limits on child labor workmen's compensation - state run insurance system that supported workers injured on the job public control of utilities government regulation of RR later senator from Cal.

48. William U'Ren - Oregon System - state government brought most democracy. reforms to the state level used initiative and referendum 32 times from 1902 - 1910

49. Robert M. "Fighting Bob" LaFollette - State government elected governor - Wisconsin - 1900 - 1906 Senator 1906 - 1925 Wisconsin Idea - university professors used as experts to help run the government develop a whole "reform package" experimentation Brain Trust Also used initiative, referendum, and recall (by 1918 - 20 states)

50. Initiative - gave voters the power to propose a bill and present it to the legislature for a vote initiated by petition force lawmakers to deal with difficult issues vote them out of office if they don't support reform

51. Referendum - public votes on a bill offered by the legislature controversial bills could be voted on by the public legislature could avoid being kicked out of office

52. Recall - power to petition the removal of officials who do not represent the wishes of the voters - before the next scheduled election

53. Direct Primary System gave party members a chance to choose their party's candidates for office party leaders had chosen the candidates get around "machines" and "bosses" voter registration

54. Australian ballot secret ballot in use everywhere by 1910

55. Direct election of senators 17th Amendment - 1913 limited campaign spending (Every state by 1915) 1907 - especially by corporations fought to regulate rr, public utilities, corporations, banks, lobbying State income tax passed Workmen's Comp and factory safety standards passed also

56. Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926) - Socialism proposed eliminating capitalism and replacing it with socialism government ownership of some of the major businesses in America 5 time socialist candidate for President Led Pullman Strike Many of his ideas were used by more mainstream candidates

57. David Graham Phillips (1867-1911) national government The Treason of the Senate - 1906 Senate depicted as a millionaire's club representing banks and corporations instead of the people

58. Amendment 17: Direct Election of Senators (1913) Progressive ideals must be incorporated at the very top levels of government (needed a "progressive president") In 1901, the Progressives got one!

59. The Origins of Progressivism 1900 - 1920 Liberal Republicans - 1870s Mugwumps and Goo-Goos - 1880s Populists - 1890s Reform Darwinism Social Gospel Pragmatism

60. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 1. Support Populists - strength was rural Progressives - strength was urban

61. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 2. Education and Wealth Populists - poor and uneducated Progressives - middle-class and well educated

62. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 3. Attitudes about change Populists - radical Populists scared off middle class - feared inflation scared off business leaders - feared labor unrest made Progressives look moderate by comparison Progressives - mainstream willing to compromise make the existing system work better from within sought consensus - broad agreement on how to improve society - willing to work with farmers and workers

63. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 4. Result Populists - failed scared off middle class - feared inflation scared off business leaders - feared labor unrest made Progressives look moderate by comparison Progressives - succeed in some ways by 1900 a strong American economy made the timing right correct the political, economic and social abuses of the Gilded Age

64. Characteristics of Progressivism Differences between populism and progressivism 4. Result Progressives - succeed in some ways Accepted industrialization and urbanization liked benefits and the higher standard of living Sought to correct their evils What are government's obligations active vs. laissez faire democracy vs. government by the rich for the rich

65. The Muckrakers writers who exposed corruption and dishonesty in business and politics - named by T.R. made the public aware of the need for change S.S. McClure 1902 - McClure's Magazine began publishing muckraker articles dealing with all kinds of different issues provided motive for the movement paid muckrakers to research and uncover corruption Cosmopolitan helped to unite farmers and workers with the middle class opponents - the rich

66. Urban Reformers

67. Jane Addams (1860-1935) Hull House 1889 - Chicago settlement house addressed problems of the slums day care kindergarten public parks boy's clubs Noble Peace Prize - 1931 child labor sweatshops Social Gospel garbage public health housing education services to the poor

68. Jacob Riis (1849-1914) How the Other Half Lives - 1890 used photography of slums in NYC to show terrible living conditions influenced TR - called 1st muckraker theory - poverty is a major cause of crime proposed - water purification, parks, playgrounds, boys clubs

69. Black Civil Rights The Problem Jim Crow Laws - Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson - 1896 Separate But Equal Define Equal Disenfranchisement KKK intimidation Lynchings - 200 per year during Gilded Age Poll Tax Literacy Test

70. Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Policy of Gradualism - Stressed earning respect - patience - wanted "gradualism” Up From Slavery Founded Tuskegee Institute Stressed vocational education for blacks (especially agriculture) Stressed ignoring segregation - changes would come when earned Stressed patience

71. W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) The Soul of Black Folks 1st black to graduate from Harvard (phD) opposed Washington's approach as too passive Policy of Immediacy argued for a black college educated elite to fight segregation through the system stressed black pride 1905 - Niagara Movement Helped to found NAACP (1909) DuBois - editor of The Crisis - NAACP journal 1st ct. victory - 1915

72. Women's Rights Goals Suffrage - voting rights for women In the labor force - better pay, more opportunity To end "second class citizenship" (to be able to do the things in public that men could)

73. Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) helped led the movement to gain women the right to vote for 40 years along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Falls Declaration - 1848 Founded National Woman Suffrage Association - 1869 women could vote in 4 western states by the time she stepped down Accomplishment - 19th Amendment - 1920

74. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) 1900 - became leader of National American Women's Suffrage Association replacing Anthony Was successful in completing Anthony's goal of obtaining the 19th Amendment helped by WWI Founded League of Women Voters to make sure that women voted intelligently In the 1920 election most women voted exactly the same way their husbands did

75. Alice Paul (1885-1977) 1913 - created Women's Party 1917 - women picketed the White House (WWI) criticism of Wilson actually slowed the 19th amendment continued to fight for women's rights after passage of 19th amendment 1923 - proposed an Equal Rights Amendment still not ratified today she was still around for the revival of the women's movement in the 1960s

76. Margaret Sanger birth control busted for sending obscene literature through the mails...info about birth control Control of their bodies

77. Temperance Movement arguments against alcohol hurt those who drank - kept them from reaching their potential hurt employers absenteeism injuries on the job mistakes at work excessive drinking caused many social problems breakup of family abuse unemployment poverty Francis Willard - Women's Christian Temperance Union - 1874 movement goes back to the 1820s Other health issues 13 states outlawed smoking by 1913 cigarette taxes replaced those laws because they were easier to enforce

78. Anti-Saloon League - 1893 hatchet wielder started with state and local laws much of the country dry before WWI WWI added patriotism to the reasons for the amendment 18th amendment - 1919 - Prohibition prohibit the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages Volstead Act - enforced prohibition on a national level

79. Economic Goals Economic Progress - Efficiency Believed that material progress achieved at too high a cost they believed that "progress" was basically good wanted "orderly progress" toward a better America efficiency - correct abuses in the system by industry and government focused on business practices that affected their life directly monopolies - destroyed small middle class businesses tariffs - raised middle class prices quality of products purchased by middle class customers

80. they were efficient administrators whose ability kept them in power Abandon laissez faire Big business choking free competition People had little protection against exploitation Regulated capitalism (some advocated socialism) business license public utilities cities regulate them take them over (socialism) rr, insurance companies, telephone states regulate them

81. Need to redistribute the wealth (1893 - 9% had 71% of national wealth) Graduated Income Tax

82. Economic Fairness and Honesty Control "special interests" (like protective tariffs) competition standard of living bus. expansion better distribution of wealth conservation of natural resources, create jobs) business mistreated workers and mislead customers regulation - restore opportunity to business

83. Business Reform

84. Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) The Jungle - 1906 most famous muckraker description of Chicago meatpacking industry Accomplishment - Pure Food and Drug Acts - 1906 Meat Inspection Act - 1906

85. John Spargo The Bitter Cry of the Children exposed horrible conditions of child labor accomplishment - Keating-Owen Child Labor Laws

86. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944) The History of Standard Oil Company - 1902-1904 exposed business practices of John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil worked for him for 6 years Accomplishments Clayton Anti-Trust Act Federal Trade Commission Marie and Bessie Van Vorst The Woman Who Toils - 1903 startling book about the conditions of women's labor

87. Francis Perkins 1910 - executive secretary of New York Consumers' League 1911 - witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire 500 workers trapped 146 died the company was acquitted of any crime had locked the fire escapes became executive secretary of New York Commission on Safety took lawmakers to visit sweatshops and factories led to improved health and safety rules including fire codes shorter work week for women (48 instead of 54) 1933 - 1945 - Secretary of Labor first woman Cabinet member

88. Political Reform Lincoln Steffens - local government The Shame of the Cities - 1904 focused on corruption, bribery, and theft in local govt.by political machines and bosses Accomplishments - held out some mayors as models for others to follow

89. Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones applied golden rule in business and in politics Social Gospel business man gave his workers paid vacations eight-hour work day 1897 - 1904 - mayor of Toledo, Ohio - policies playgrounds a golf course free kindergartens night school for adults minimum wage for city workers $1.50 (2x normal) homeless shelter open air - non-denominational church

90. Seth Low Brooklyn mayor - 1881 - 1885 set up Bureau of Charities - 1878 improved school system used merit system for jobs President of Columbia University - 1890 - 1901 adult education program improved graduate school New York City mayor - 1901 - 1903 replaced Tammany Hall bosses improved police improved civil service 1907 - president of National Civic Federation 1914 - president New York Chamber of Commerce

91. Tom Johnson Mayor of Cleveland City ownership of utilities increased vigilance over corporate political connections

92. Commission System - 1901 - Galveston (400 by 1920) non-partisan elections - five board members each chosen based on expertise and put in charge of a particular department (police, sanitation, public works, etc.) to "fix" responsibility and hurricane had destroyed 1/6 population 1/3 property "get things done" (after crisis, kept the system) Steffens spread the use of this system to middle size cities it did not work well in large ones by WWI, over 400 cities adopted it

93. City Manager System - 1908 - Staunton, Va. Board or (elected) City Council hired a professional non-political manager to run city affairs; by WWI, some 250! Managers job was to solve the city's problems rather than the mayor

94. Hiram W. Johnson (1910 - 1918) - governor of California eight-hour work day for women limits on child labor workmen's compensation - state run insurance system that supported workers injured on the job public control of utilities government regulation of RR later senator from Cal.

95. William U'Ren - Oregon System - state government brought most democracy. reforms to the state level used initiative and referendum 32 times from 1902 - 1910

96. Robert M. "Fighting Bob" LaFollette - State government elected governor - Wisconsin - 1900 - 1906 Senator 1906 - 1925 Wisconsin Idea - university professors used as experts to help run the government develop a whole "reform package" experimentation Brain Trust Also used initiative, referendum, and recall (by 1918 - 20 states)

97. Initiative - gave voters the power to propose a bill and present it to the legislature for a vote initiated by petition force lawmakers to deal with difficult issues vote them out of office if they don't support reform

98. Referendum - public votes on a bill offered by the legislature controversial bills could be voted on by the public legislature could avoid being kicked out of office

99. Recall - power to petition the removal of officials who do not represent the wishes of the voters - before the next scheduled election

100. Direct Primary System gave party members a chance to choose their party's candidates for office party leaders had chosen the candidates get around "machines" and "bosses" voter registration

101. Australian ballot secret ballot in use everywhere by 1910

102. Direct election of senators 17th Amendment - 1913 limited campaign spending (Every state by 1915) 1907 - especially by corporations fought to regulate rr, public utilities, corporations, banks, lobbying State income tax passed Workmen's Comp and factory safety standards passed also

103. Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926) - Socialism proposed eliminating capitalism and replacing it with socialism government ownership of some of the major businesses in America 5 time socialist candidate for President Led Pullman Strike Many of his ideas were used by more mainstream candidates

104. David Graham Phillips (1867-1911) national government The Treason of the Senate - 1906 Senate depicted as a millionaire's club representing banks and corporations instead of the people

105. Amendment 17: Direct Election of Senators (1913) Progressive ideals must be incorporated at the very top levels of government (needed a "progressive president") In 1901, the Progressives got one!

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