The prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus
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THE PREVENTION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. Prof. Dr. Predrag Djordjevic. Diabetes Centre, Institute for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro. IGT and Macrovascular Complications.

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The prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus l.jpg

THE PREVENTION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Prof. Dr. Predrag Djordjevic

Diabetes Centre,

Institute for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade

Serbia and Montenegro


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IGT and Macrovascular Complications

IGT as defined by the WHO guidelines (2h-OGTT) is a risk marker for macrovascular complications.

2

known diabetes

1,75

IGT

1,5

IFG

Hazard ratio

1,25

1

CVD

CHD

Stroke

All causes

Adapted from: DECODE study group: Arch Intern Med 161: 397- 404, 2001.


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A) Lifestyle factors

a)Dietary issues

High fat and low carbohydrate diets have been linked with type diabetes.

Vegetable fat and polyunsaturated fat had reduced risk.

Trans-fatty acids had increased risk.

No increase of risk associated with high saturated fat intakes


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Our experiences

2. Dietary Fat Intake as Risk Factor for the Development of Diabetes

Multi-Centre Study of the Mediterranean Group for the Study of Diabetes (MGSD)

AC. Thanopoulou1, BG. Karamanos1,,.....V. Dimitrijevic4, P. Djordjevic4.....and MTP. Tenconi 9

Diabetes Care 26:302-307, 2003.

Summary:

We have presented data showing that both subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes and subjects with undiagnosed fasting glycaemia in the diabetic range, compared with matched control subject, have higher intake of fat and especially animal fat. Our data support the view that increased animal fat in diet may contribute to increased incidence of diabetes.

Comment:

In the present study, fat intake especially of animal origin was strongly associated with both recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Increased fat intake effect maybe mediated through changes in insulin sensitivity. Saturated fat is inversely related to insulin sensitivity.

Same trend exist for animal fat intake.


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Table 2 - Comparison of the energy nutrient intake between subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes, unknown diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and their control groups

RDM

Control

RDM

UDM

Control

UDM

IFG

Control

IFG

-----------------------------

89 ±5

87 ±6

Fat (g/day)

79±2

76 ±2

95 ±6

83 ±6

36 ±3

36 ±3†

31 ±2

Animal fat (g/day)

32 ±1

29 ±1

29 ±2

-----------------------------

34.7 ±1.5#

30.6 ±1.1

Fat (% of total energy)

30.4 ±1.2

30.2 ±0.5¶

27.8 ±0.5

32.1 ±1.2

12.5 ±0.7

14.2 ±0.9‡

10.9 ±0.6

Animal fat (% of total energy)

12.2 ±0.3**

10.8 ±0.3

10.6 ±0.7

-----------------------------

Data are means ± SE. All P values were adjusted for multiple comparison according to Bonferroni

† - p=0.043

¶ - p=0.0001

# - p=0.013


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A) subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes, unknown diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and their control groups Overall, the published information of the effect of lifestyle changes is encouraging, at least a 50% reduction in progression from IGT to type 2 diabetes.

However it seems unlikely that significant lifestyle changes will be achieved in many developed countries and or maintained long-term in other vise healthy individuals against a background of unrestrained and relatively unhealthy behavioral lifestyle choices by the rest of community. In this setting, it is important to consider to possibility of pharmacological intervention


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Table 3 - Risk factors for type 2 diabetes subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes, unknown diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and their control groups

  • Age 45 years

  • Overweight (BMI  25 kg/m2*)

  • First degree relative with diabetes

  • Habitual physical inactivity

  • Member of a high risk ethnic population (e.g. African-American, Latino, Native American, Asian-American, Pacific Islander)

  • Previously identified pre-diabetes (IFG or IGT)

  • History of GDM or delivery of a baby weighing > 9 lbs

  • Hypertensive ( 140/90 mmHg)

  • HDL cholesterol level  35 mg/dl (0.9 mmol/l) and/or a triglyceride level  250 mg/dl (2.82 mmol/l)

  • PCOS

  • History of vascular disease

*May not be correct for all ethnic groups


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Prevention strategies subjects with recently diagnosed diabetes, unknown diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and their control groups

A) Lifestyle interventions:

a) Diet (reduction of obesity by 10% or more)

b) Physical activity (reduction of obesity, increase insulin sensitivity, persistent effects).

B) Pharmacological treatment

C) Combination: A+B


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Fig.1- Proportion of subjects without diabetes during the Trial

Cumulative Probability of

Remaining Free of Diabetes

Tuomilehto J et al. NEMJ 344, 18 May 3, 2001, 1343-50


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8 Trial

1y. WHR:-9.4%, -14.4%, -15.1% respectively

2y. WHR:-11.5%, -16.3%, -17.2% respectively

Metabolic and function parameters

1 y. Surf. bell. ins. curve: RD -21.2%, ID -32.0%, ID+Ex -33.4%

HOMA IR:RD -32%,ID -49.9%,ID+Ex-49.7%

HOMA : RD -21.8, ID -36.8%, ID+Ex -37.4

2 y. Surf. bell. ins. curve: RD -28.2%, ID -34.1%, ID+Ex -35.3%

HOMA IR:RD -33.5%,ID -51.1%,ID+Ex-50.9%

HOMA : RD -22.6, ID -37.0%, ID+Ex -37.5

Reduction of incidence of DM

  • 1 y. IGT: RD. 48%, ID 56%, ID + Exercise 60%

  • 2 years IGT: RD. 52%, ID 60%, ID + Exercise 64%

    Droop out and side effects

  • 1 year RD 4%, ID 0% ID+Ex 0%

  • 2 years RD 36% ID 16%ID+Ex 20%

    CONCLUSION, OBJECTIONS

    Our results confirmed that in the high-risk subjects with IGT, obesity and older age type 2 diabetes can be prevented by changes in the lifestyle

Title of the Study, Authors

  • BELGRADE DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAMME, 2000-2003, S&M (former YU)

    DESIGN

    Plan of the Study

  • Randomized

  • 1. Diet A) Reduction D - RD. B) Individually D. -ID

  • 2. ID + Exercise - ID+Ex

  • 3. ID + Ex + Metformin or Placebo

  • Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial (not yet finished)

    Number of the participants - 125 ?

    Duration - 3 years

    Risk factors IGT, Obesity, aged 40-70 years,

    Intervention measures

    DIET:

    1. RD 1000 kcal/24h 2.ID (aged, sex, BMR, activity level)

  • For both diet: CH 55-60% fibres 25g/l000 kacl, fats bellow 26%, SAT <8%,PUNS 3-7%, MUNS 11-15% (high CH, high fibre, low fats)

    3. Exercise: walking, 1 hour, speed 6km/h daily

    GOALS

  • To prevent Type 2DM

    MAIN RESULTS

    Weight and anthropometric parameters

    1 y. BMI: RD -153%, ID -21.1%, ID+Ex -22.5%,

    2y. BMI: RD -19.7%, ID -25.6%, ID+Ex -26.4%,


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Normal Trial

IGT

DM

Glucose tolerance after 1 and 2 years

1 year

2 years

RD

IGT

ID

IGT

ID

+

Physical activ.

IGT


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Incidence of Diabetes Trial

Placebo (n=1082)

Metformin (n=1073, p<0.001 vs. Placebo)

Lifestyle (n=1079, p<0.001 vs. Metformin ,

p<0.001 vs. Placebo)

Risk reduction

31% by metformin

58% by lifestyle

The DPP Research Group, NEJM 346:393-403, 2002


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Conclusion Trial

  • T2DM is a preventable disease

  • Both lifestyle intervention and Metformin were effective in preventing the development of T2DM

  • Lifestyle intervention was more effective in reducing the risk of T2DM


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11 Trial

Reduction of incidence of DM

A) The risk of progression to DM over 3.3 years was reduced by 2 5%

Acarbose increases the probability that IGT will revert to normal glucose tolerance over time.

Weight loss contributed to decreased risk of DM

When Acarbose discontinued at the end of the study incidence of DM increased.

Droop out and side effects

29.56% of whom 48% during first year

Mainly from G I side effects

CONCLUSIONS, OBJECTIONS

Farmacological intervention with Acarbose could be used either as an alternative or in addition to changes in lifestyle, to delay development of type 2 DM in patients with IGT.

Acarbose effectively reduced risk of the developing DM irrespective of age, sex and BMI.

11 patients with IGT would need to be treated for 3-years to prevent 1 case of DM

Title of the Study, Authors

  • STOP NIDDM Study, Multi Nationale (9 Countries), 1996-2001.

    DESIGN

    Plan of the Study

  • Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicentric Study

  • A) Acarbose, B) Placebo

    Number of the participants - 1429 (714 Acarbose + 715 Placebo)

    Duration - 3,3 years (Mean follow up)

    Risk factorsIGT, BMI, 25-40 kg/m2 , High risk population in particular from first degree- relatives of patients with type to DM.

    Intervention measures

    FPG: 5.6-7.7 mmol/l. Acarbose 100mg or Placebo, 3 times daly; 3-day nutritional diary phisical activity recorded 3 days

    GOALS

    To delay progression from IGT to type 2 DM

    Primary endpoint: Development of DM

    MAIN RESULTS

    Weight and anthropometric parameters

    Weight: A) 87.6 kg to 87.1 kg (-0.5kg), B) 87.0kg to 87.3 kg (+0.3kg), p=0.018



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Actual Conclusions Trial

  • Type 2 DM is a preventable disease

  • Type 2 diabetes is cardiovascular disease



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Change in Fasting Insulin Trial

Change in Insulin (μU/ml)


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Change in Blood Presure Trial

Diastolic

Systolic

Change in BP (mmHg)


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Change in Lipids Trial

Triglycerides

Choleterol

Change (%)


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Conclusion Trial

  • T2DM is a preventable disease

  • Both lifestyle intervention and Metformin were effective in preventing the development of T2DM

  • Lifestyle intervention was more effective in reducing the risk of T2DM

  • Lifestyle intervention and Metformin were associated with modest improvement in insulinemia and CVD risk factors


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Effect of acarbose treatment on the risk of silent myocardial infarction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: results of randomised STOP-NIDDM trial electrocardiographyUwe Zeymer, A. Schwarzmaier-D’assie, D. Petzinna, JL Chiasson and for the STOP-NIDDM Trial Research GroupEur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004; 11:000-000, European Society of Cardiology

Beckground The moderate increase in postprandial plasma glucose in subject with impaired glucose tolerance has been shown to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease. In the randomised STOP-NIDDM trial, we could demonstrated that lowering postprandial plasma glucose with acarbose in subjects with impaired oral glucose tolerance could reduced the risk of diabetes.

Methods The current report focuses on the effect of acarbose on silent ischaemic events evaluated in the electrocardiographic substudy, using the Minnesota code classification.

Results A total of 1181 patients were included in the ECG substudy. From these 72 patients had significant changes between the baseline and end of treatment ECG, 33 in the acarbose and 39 in placebo group. Higher rates of myocardial infarctions occurred in the placebo group (p=0.023 with Chi-square test), while there were no differences between the two groups with ECG changes classified under the other Minnesota codes.

Conclusions In this prospective intervention study we could show that acarbose, by decreasing postprandial hyperglycaemia, can reduce the incidence of silent myocardial infarction in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. This approach should therefore be evaluated in other higher risk populations.


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1st International Congress on ”Prediabetes” and the Metabolic Syndrome

Berlin, Germany, April 13-16, 2005.

IS IGT DISEASE?METABOLIC PARAMETERS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND THROMBOGENESIS IN MACROANGIOPATHY WHICH ALREDY EXIST

Predrag B. Djordjevic, V. Kanjuh, V. Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, M. Ostojic,

S. Popovic, F. Canovic, D. Gostiljac, B. Sreckovic,

G. Milic, R. Obrenovic, E. Colak

Diabetes Center

Institute for Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic diseases

Clinical Center of Serbia

Serbia and Montenegro


Methods l.jpg
METHODS Metabolic Syndrome

  • 62 obese patients were included, over 45 years old, with IGT (criteria - WHOWG 1998.)

  • 48.4% of them was with DMA (CHD, CVD, peripheral artery disease).

  • Risk factors for atherosclerosis were established:

    • insulin sensitivity-HOMA IR, insulin secretion-HOMA β,

    • lipids profile (total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A and Apo B),

    • atioxidative protection (SOD, GPX, TAS)

    • homocysteine-HCS

    • blood pressure

    • thrombogenesis: PAI-1 and fibrinogen

  • Statistical significance between groups with and without DMA was preformed (Students t test).


Lipids l.jpg
Lipids Metabolic Syndrome

P>0.05

p<0.05

6.1±1.6

P<0.05

mmol/L

4.8±1.2

4.7±1.2

3.4±1.2

3.3±0.98

P>0.05

2.1±0.9

1.1±0.37

0.95±0.43


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Blood pressure Metabolic Syndrome

P<0.05

P<0.01

135 ± 24.3

mmHg

95.5 ± 17.8

121 ± 26.2

82.1 ± 12.4


Pai 1 l.jpg
PAI-1 Metabolic Syndrome

P<0.01

3.8 ± 1.8

1.7 ± 0.9

U/ml


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CONCLUSION Metabolic Syndrome

  • Diabetic macroangiopathy exist and is frequent in IGT. It is associated with more frequent presence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and thrombogenesis.

  • Therefore, IGT is cardiovascular disease, too.


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  • There is growing epidemiological Metabolic Syndrome

    evidence for the association of

    postprandial hyperglycaemia and

    macrovascular complications in

    diabetic patients


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Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: Meta-analysis of seven long-term studiesH. Hanefeld et al.European Heart Journal 2004; 25: 10-16

Aims

  • To assess if treatment with the -glucosidase inhibitor acarbose can reduce cardiovascular event in type 2 diabetic patients


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Conclusion 2 diabetic patients:

  • Intervention with acarbose can prevent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients while most of them are already on intensive concomitant cardiovascular medication.


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1st International Congress on ”Prediabetes” 2 diabetic patients: and the Metabolic SyndromeBerlin, Germany, April 13-16, 2005.

G. Alberti

IDF consensus on the metabolic syndrome:

DEFINITION AND TREATMENT 2004.

  • The goal was to find effective but simplest and cheapest parameters


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1. 2 diabetic patients: Obesity

  • BMI

  • Central obesity (sine qua non)

  • W/H ratio

  • W circumference (ethnic specific)

    2.  Triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l (sine qua non)

    3. HDL < 0.9 mmol/l - Male

    < 1.1 mmol/l - Female

    4.  Blood Pressure > 130 /  85 mmHg

    systolic diastolic

    5. Dysglicaemia

    6. Raised blood glucose > 5.6 mmol/l or preexisting

    Diabetes mellitus

(Gender specific)

or

Treatment of hypertension

Estimation of insulin resistance (IR) is (very) complex one for every day praxis and epidemiological studies because of that we may use following equation :

Central obesity + 2 of cited parameters = IR


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We need the prospective studies to estimate 2 diabetic patients:

connection between metabolic syndrome and

CVD especially.

In the mean time the investigators should be asked to evaluate

- sensitivity

- specificity

- predictivity

of all ”new” parameters according its

connection with CVD.

WHO and perhaps IDF should also be asked to

approve any agreed new definition of

Metabolic Syndrome


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1st International Congress on ”Prediabetes” 2 diabetic patients: and the Metabolic SyndromeBerlin, Germany, April 13-16, 2005.

G. Alberti

Are We Ready to Treat the Metabolic Syndrome?

  • Purpose of treatment

  • To prevent CVD

  • To prevent type 2 DM

  • At the moment there is no direct proof that prevention of Metabolic Syndrome means prevention of CVD and DM


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  • According the etiology of Metabolic Syndrome (MSy) treatment measures must be directed to

    • life style management (amount)

      • diet

      • physical activity (increase)

    • pharmacologic treatment

      • systematic treatment MSy component

        • insulin sensitizers (metformin, glitazones)

        • PPR- and  agonists for glycaemic and lipid disorders

        • antiobesity drugs - new urgently needed

        • aspirin

        • antihypertensives (ACE-I and/or A2 and CB1 receptor blockers)

        • oral antihyperglycaemic agents

        • insulin (it will be investigated more precisely)

        • statin and fibrate

    • stop smoking

  • It is unetical not to treat MSy but there is not ”magic bullet”

  • Finally we do not have specific therapy but we should deal with each of the component abnormalities


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