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Chapter 1 – Introduction to Accounting and Business. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:. Describe the nature of a business and the role of accounting in business. Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

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Chapter 1 –

Introduction to Accounting and Business

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Describe the nature of a business and the role of accounting in business.

  • Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

  • State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.

  • Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the accounting equation.

  • Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship


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ServiceBusinessService

The Walt Disney Company Entertainment

Atlas Air Transportation

Marriott International Hotels Hospitality and lodging

Bank of America Corporation Financial services

XM Satellite Radio Satellite radio

Objective #1 - Describe the nature of a business and the role of accounting in business.

0

1-1

Types of Businesses


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Merchandising BusinessProduct

Wal-Mart General merchandise

GameStop Corporation Video games and accessories

Best Buy Consumer electronics

Gap Inc. Apparel

Amazon.com Internet books, music, video

0

1-1

Types of Businesses


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Manufacturing BusinessProduct

General Motors Corp. Cars, trucks, vans

Samsung Cell phones

Dell Inc. Personal computers

Nike Athletic shoes and apparel

Pepsico Beverages and Snacks

Sony Corporation Stereos and televisions

0

1-1

Types of Businesses


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0

Accountingcan be defined as aninformation system that provides reports to stakeholders about the economic activities and condition of a business.

1-1

Who are stakeholders? – anyone or any entity that has an interest in the economic performance and well-being of a business

Bankers and other creditors – need to ensure that the business has the ability to repay loans, and on a timely basis

Suppliers – need to ensure their customer (the business) will be around to purchase their supplies and then be able to pay for them

Customers – are interested in the business to determine if they will always be around to provide a constant flow of goods and services

Government – need to ensure that the business pays the correct amount of taxes

Employees and Management– need to ensure that the business is doing well so that they will have a job


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0

Different types of Accounting

1-1

Financial accounting is primarily concerned with the recording & reporting of economic data and activities for a business to external parties.

Managerial accounting uses both financial accounting and estimated data to aid management in running day-to-day operations and in planning future operations.

Accountants employed by a business firm or a not-for-profit organization are said to be employed in private accounting. E.g. CFO, Controller, or Financial Analyst of Pepsico

Accountants and their staff who provide services to the public (i.e. individuals and corporations) on a fee basis are said to be employed in public accounting. E.g. PricewaterhouseCoopers, Ernst & Young, KPMG, Deloitte


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Objective #2 - Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

0

1-2

GAAP – Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. These are the rules that govern how businesses record and report financial transactions

FASB – Financial Accounting Standards Board. This body is the major one responsible for preparing US GAAP.

IASB – International Accounting Standards Board. This body is the one responsible for preparing International GAAP, which is also known as ‘International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)’

The business entity conceptlimits the economic data in the accounting system to data related directly to the activities of the business. – i.e.nothing personal unless it has been given/assigned to the business

The cost concept is the basis for entering the exchange price, or cost of an acquisition in the accounting records. – e.g. what was paid for it.


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0

1-1

Common Forms of Business Entities

  • Proprietorship

  • Partnership

  • Corporation

  • Limited liability company


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0

A proprietorshipis owned by one individual and—

1-1

  • Comprises 70% of business organizations in the United States.

  • Requires low cost of organizing.

  • Is limited to financial resources of the owner.

  • Is used by small businesses.

A partnershipis similar to a proprietorship except that it is owned by two or more individuals and—

  • Comprises 10% of business organizations in the United States.

  • Combines the skills and resources of more than one person.


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0

1-1

A corporationis organized under state or federal statues as a separate legal taxable entity and—

  • Generates 90% of the total dollars of business receipts received.

  • Comprises 20% of the businesses.

  • Includes ownership divided into shares of stock, sold to shareholders (stockholders).

  • Is able to obtain large amounts of resources by issuing stock.

  • Is used by large businesses.


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0

1-1

A limited liability company(LLC)combines attributes of a partnership and a corporation in that it is organized as a corporation. However, a limited liability corporation can elect to be taxed as a partnership and—

  • Is a popular alternative to a partnership.

  • Has tax and liability advantages to the owners.


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Objective #3 - State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.

0

1-3

The Accounting Equation

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

The resources owned by a business

The rights of the owners

The rights of the creditors, which represent debts of the business


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Objective #4 - Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the accounting equation.

0

1-4

A business transaction is an economic event or condition that directly changes an entity’s financial condition or directly affects its results of operations.

On November 1, 2007, Chris Clark begins a business that will be known as NetSolutions. This business provides web design services, and computer repair services etc.


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Assets transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

Owner’s Equity

=

Cash

25,000

=

a.

0

1-4

Chris Clark, Capital

25,000 Investment by Chris Clark

a. Chris Clark deposits $25,000 in a bank account in the name of NetSolutions.


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Bal. 5,000 20,000 25,000 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

0

1-4

Assets

Owner’s Equity

=

Chris Clark, Capital

25,000

Cash + Land

25,000

Bal.

=

b. –20,000 +20,000

b. NetSolutions purchased land for $20,000.


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0 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

+1,350 +1,350

c.

Bal.

5,000 1,350 20,000 1,350 25,000

1-4

Owner’s

Liabilities + Equity

Assets

Accounts Chris Clark,

Cash + Supplies + Land Payable Capital

=

Bal.

5,000 20,000 25,000

c. During the month, NetSolutions purchased supplies for $1,350 and agreed to pay the supplier in the near future (on account).

Note – these supplies e.g. wires, cables etc, will be used up later in the business


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1-4 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

Revenue and expenses

  • A company earns revenues by

  • selling products - Sales

  • providing services - Fees Earned

  • renting out premises - Rent Revenue

  • lending money - Interest Revenue

The amounts used in earning revenue are called expenses.

Note:

Expenses that have paid for (or incurred) but not yet been used up are referred to as prepaid expenses e.g. supplies.

When these prepaid expenses have been used up, they will then become regular expenses e.g.supplies expenses


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0 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

0

d.

+7,500

1-4

Assets

Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

Cash + Supplies + Land

Accounts Chris Clark, Fees

Payable Capital + Earned

+

Bal.

5,000 1,350 20,000

1,350 25,000

+7,500

=

Bal.

12,500 1,350 20,000

1,350

25,000 7,500

d. NetSolutions provided services to customers, earning fees of $7,500 and received the amount in cash.

Note – If the customers did not pay immediately, but opted to pay on account ( i.e. at a later date), then the asset that would have been increased would have been accounts receivable


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0 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

1-4

Note……….

  • Adding expenses to the owner’s equity section results in a space problem. To adjust for these added headings, the word “Bal.” has been omitted from some slides. The bottom row still provides the balances after each transaction.

  • Beginning with entry (e) the asset section will be shown first, then the liabilities and owner’s equity will be shown in the following slide.


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Bal. 8,850 1,350 20,000 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

0

1-4

Assets

Cash + Supplies + Land

Bal. 12,500 1,350 20,000

e. –3,650

e. NetSolutions paid the following expenses: wages, $2,125; rent, $800; utilities, $450; and miscellaneous, $275.


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e. transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

–2,125 –800 –450 –275

1,350 25,000 7,500 –2,125 –800 –450 –275

0

1-4

Liabilities +Owner’s Equity

Accounts Chris Clark, Fees Wages Rent Utilities Misc.

Payable + Capital + Earned Expense Expense Expense Expense

1,350 25,000 7,500

e. NetSolutions paid the following expenses: wages, $2,125; rent, $800; utilities, $450; and miscellaneous, $275.


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Bal. 7,900 1,350 20,000 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

0

1-4

Assets

Cash + Supplies + Land

Bal. 8,850 1,350 20,000

f. –950

f. NetSolutions paid $950 to creditors during the month.


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f. transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

–950

400 25,000 7,500 –2,125 –800 –450 –275

0

1-4

Liabilities +Owner’s Equity

Accounts Chris Clark, Fees Wages Rent Utilities Misc.

Payable + Capital + Earned Expense Expense Expense Expense

–2,125 –800 –450 –275

1,350 25,000 7,500

f. NetSolutions paid $950 to creditors during the month.


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Bal. 7,900 550 20,000 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

0

1-4

Assets

Cash + Supplies + Land

Bal. 7,900 1,350 20,000

g. –800

g. At the end of the month, the cost of supplies on hand is $550, so $800 of supplies must have been used up


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g. transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

–800

400 25,000 7,500 –2,125 –800 –800 –450 –275

0

1-4

Liabilities +Owner’s Equity

Accounts Chris Clark, Fees Wages Rent Supplies Util. Misc.

Payable + Capital + Earned Exp. Exp. Exp. Exp. Exp.

400 25,000 7,500 –2,125 –800 –450 –275

g. At the end of the month, the cost of supplies on hand is $550, so $800 of supplies must have been used up


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Bal. 5,900 550 20,000 transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

0

1-4

Assets

Cash + Supplies + Land

Bal. 7,900 550 20,000

h. –2,000

h. At the end of the month, Chris withdrew $2,000 in cash from the business for personal use.


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h. transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

–2,000

400 25,000 –2,000 7,500 –2,125 –800 –800 –450 –275

0

1-4

Liabilities +Owner’s Equity

Accounts Chris Clark, Chris Clark Fees Wages Rent Supplies Util. Misc.

Payable + Capital + Drawing Earned Exp. Exp. Exp. Exp. Exp.

400 25,000 7,500 –2,125 –800 –800 –450 –275

h. At the end of the month, Chris withdrew $2,000 in cash from the business for personal use.


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Summary transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the


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Decreased by transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the basic elements of the

Increased by

Owner’s withdrawals

Expenses

Owner’s investments

Revenues

0

1-4

Owner’s Equity


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Objective #5 - Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

0

1-5

Accounting reports, called financial statements, provide summarized information to the owner.

  • The 4 common financial statements are prepared in the following order:

  • Income Statement

  • Statement of Owner’s Equity

  • Balance Sheet

  • Statement of Cash Flow


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1-5 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

The income statement is a summary of the revenue and expenses for a specific period of time, such as a month or a year.

The income statement is based on the matching concept.

This concept is applied by matching expenses with the revenues they generated, only during the period that those revenues were generated.

Note - The excess of revenue over the expenses is called netincomeor net profit. If the expenses exceed the revenue, the difference is anet loss.


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

Income Statement

1-5

Net income is carried to the statement of owner’s equity


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

A statement of owner’s equity is a summary of the changes in the owner’s equity that have occurred during a specific period of time.


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

Statement of Owner’s Equity

1-5

From the income statement

To the balance sheet


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

A balance sheet is a list of the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity as of a specific date.


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

Balance Sheet

1-5

This amount is compared to the net cash flow on the statement of cash flows

From the statement of owner’s equity


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

A statement of cash flows is a summary of the cash receipts and payments for a specific period of time.

Note - It basically shows how the company spent its money, and the sources from which it received money.


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

Statement of Cash Flows

1-5

This amount should match Cash on the balance sheet.


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

Example Exercise 1-4, 1-5 & 1-6

The assets and liabilities of Chickadee Travel Service at April 30, 2010, the end of the current year, and its revenue and expenses for the year are listed below. The capital of the owner, Adam Cellini, was $80,000 at May 1, 2009, the beginning of the current year.

Accounts payable $ 12,200 Miscellaneous expense $ 12,950

Accounts receivable 31,350 Office expense 63,000

Cash 53,050 Supplies 3,350

Fees earned 263,200 Wages expense 131,700

Land 80,000

Adam Cellini invested an additional $50,000 in the business during the year and withdrew cash of $30,000 for personal use.

For the current year ended April 30, 2010.

a. Prepare an income statement

b. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity

c. Prepare a balance sheet


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

Example Exercise 1-4 & 1-5

Example Exercise 1-4, 1-5 & 1-6

CHICKADEE TRAVEL SERVICE

INCOME STATEMENT

For the Year Ended April 30, 2010

Fees earned $263,200

Expenses:

Wages expense $131,700

Office expense 63,000

Miscellaneous expense 12,950

Total expenses 207,650

Net income $ 55,550


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

Example Exercise 1-4, 1-5 & 1-6

CHICKADEE TRAVEL SERVICE

STATEMENT OF OWNER’S EQUITY

For the Year Ended April 30, 2010

Adam Cellini, capital, May 1, 2009 $ 80,000

Additional investment by owner during year $ 50,000

Net income for the year 55,550

$105,550

Less withdrawals 30,000

Increase in owner’s equity 75,550

Adam Cellini, capital, April 30, 2010 $155,550


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

Balance Sheet

The account form of balance sheet lists the assets on the left and the liabilities and owner’s equity on the right—similar to design of an account.

The report form of balance sheet presents the liabilities and owner’s equity sections below the assets section.


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CHICKADEE TRAVEL SERVICE proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

BALANCE SHEET

April 30, 2010

Assets Liabilities

Cash $ 53,050 Accounts payable $12,200

Accounts receivable 31,350

Supplies 3,350 Owner’s Equity

Land 80,000 Adam Cellini, capital 155,550

Total assets $167,750 Total liab. & owner’s eq. $167,750

0

1-5

Example Exercise 1-4, 1-5 & 1-6


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

Statement of Cash Flows

The statement of cash flows consists of three sections:

  • Operating activities

  • Investing activities

  • Financing activities


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0 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

1-5

The cash flows from operating activities section reports a summary of cash receipts and cash payments from operations.

The cash flows from investing activities section reports the cash transactions for the acquisition and sale of relatively permanent assets.

The cash flows from financing activities section reports the cash transactions related to cash investments by the owner, borrowings, and cash withdrawals by the owner.


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Example Exercise 1-7 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

0

1-5

A summary of cash flows for Chickadee Travel Service for the year ended April 30, 2010, is shown below.

Cash receipts:

Cash received from customers $251,000

Cash received from additional

investment of owner 50,000

Cash payments:

Cash paid for expenses 210,000

Cash paid for land 80,000

Cash paid to owner for personal use 30,000

The cash balance as of May 1, 2009, was $72,050.

Prepare a statement of cash flows for Chickadee Travel Service for the year ended April 30, 2010.


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Follow My Example 1-7 proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

0

1-5

CHICKADEE TRAVEL SERVICE

STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS

For the Year Ended April 30, 2010

Cash flows from operating activities:

Cash received from customers $251,000

Deduct cash payments for expenses 210,000

Net cash flows from operating activities $ 41,000

Cash flows from investing activities:

Cash payments for purchase of land (80,000)

Cash flows from financing activities:

Cash received from owner as investment $ 50,000

Deduct cash withdrawals by owner 30,000

Net cash flows from financing activities 20,000

Net decrease in cash during year $(19,000)

Cash as of May 1, 2009 72,050

Cash as of April 30, 2010 $ 53,050


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Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

$400

$26,050

=

5

Financial Analysis and Interpretation

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity

Total Liabilities

Total Owner’s Equity (or Total Stockholders’ Equity)

=

For NetSolutions:

= 0.015

48


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