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The expansion of Participatory Budgeting in Brazil. an analysis of the sucessful cases based upon design and socio-economic indicators Leonardo Avritzer Brian Wampler. The World Bank Institute The Municipal Development Program (MDP) , Africa The Participatory Democracy Project

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The expansion of Participatory Budgeting in Brazil

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The expansion of participatory budgeting in brazil l.jpg

The expansion of Participatory Budgeting in Brazil

an analysis of the sucessful cases based upon design and socio-economic indicators

Leonardo Avritzer

Brian Wampler

The World Bank Institute

The Municipal Development Program (MDP), Africa

The Participatory Democracy Project

Belo Horizonte, Brazil

December, 2008


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Explaining the Research

Presentation guidelines:

  • P.B. cases

    After the collection of data, it was time to categorize it for the analysis process. P.B. cases were categorized according to their existence in administrative mayoral periods in Brazil since 1997:

  • 1997-2000: 120 cases

  • 2001-2004: 199 cases

  • 2005-2008: 201 cases

    Research Methodology: data collection and categorization;

  • P.B. incidence: emergence and spreading;

  • P.B. incidence: socio-economic indicators;

  • P.B. incidence: design and patterns for successful cases


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PB’s Operation

City’s regionalization and constitution of fora and regional and thematic assemblies – presentation of demands and discussion of priorities;

Adjustment of the discussion to a set of rules and procedures to be discussed, such as poverty indices and access to public goods and services – redistributive criteria;

Creation of a PB council (delegates and councilors) that defines the investment plan and budget proposal;

Control, supervision and fiscalization of the implementation of approved projects.


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P.B. INCIDENCE Emergence and spreading

Diffusion of PBs through municipal administrations in Brazil

Source: Projeto Democracia Participativa, 2004


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P.B. INCIDENCE Emergence and spreading

Diffusion of PBs through municipal administrations in Brazil

Source: Projeto Democracia Participativa, 2004


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P.B. INCIDENCE Emergence and spreading

Diffusion of PBs through municipal administrations in Brazil

Source: data collected from the present research


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P.B. INCIDENCE Emergence and spreading

Percentage of P.B. Experiences through Brazil

Source: data collected from the present research


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P.B. INCIDENCE Design and patterns for successful cases

P.B. 2008

In which place of the administration P.B. is located

Source: data collected from the research


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P.B. INCIDENCE Design and patterns for successful cases

P.B. 2008

Timing cycle for the cases

Source: data collected from the research


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P.B. INCIDENCE Design and patterns for successful cases

P.B. 2008

Existence of P.B. Municipal Council

Source: data collected from the research


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P.B. INCIDENCE Design and patterns for successful cases

P.B. 2008

Priorities for the distribution of resources

Source: data collected from the present research


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Conclusions

HDI ranking above the average

Historically, P.B. cases are present in cities that rank higher in HDI average. Despite the de-concentration from the South and Southeast, which are regions that usually rank higher anyway, this pattern hasn´t changed, as the table bellow shows:

P.B. Cases still rank higher in HDI in comparison to Brazil´s average. Regarding the Northeast region, which has received most of the new cases found, the pattern remains the same: P.B. Cases rank higher in comparison to the regions average.


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Conclusions

Central institutions to the existence of P.B.

The research has shown the existence of some institutions that have strong presence in the successful cases of P.B.. They are described in the table that follows:

These institutons are related to design and may be understood as key elements for the proper functioning and even existence of P.B.


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Dissemination paper

Brazil and Mozambique


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Analysis of data collectedBrazil and Mozambique

  • Two phenomena are common to both cases:

    FIRST

    Rapid increasing in the degree of urbanization in the last years


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Analysis of data collectedBrazil and Mozambique

Second

In spite of the increase in the degree of urbanization, there haven´t been adopted any effective urban planning policies to guide the process

The result is the lack of basic policies in many areas of many cities, such as access to electric energy, access to basic infrastructure, and so on


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Analysis of data collectedBrazil and Mozambique

  • One of the most important observed characteristic of P.B. cases in Brazil nowadays is not only the wide territorial distribution, but the non-complete dependency on the type of political party to exist. Not only leftist parties have been adopting it, but also centrist ones.


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Analysis of data collectedBrazil and Mozambique

  • Successful cases in Brazil have shown that two variables do have great weight for the existence of P.B.:

    First

    The political will of the government. The support and initiative of the government are paramount

    Second

    The existence of a strong participatory background, or, in other words, the existence of a strong civil society capable of pressing the government for the adoption of the program


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Analysis of data collectedBrazil and Mozambique

  • In Mozambique, as well as in many other african countries, some participatory programs have been implemented by a myriad of organizations

  • However, the methodology of such programs implied a “top-down” implementation, which means that a whole prescription was previously made and, then, implemented as a package

  • Successfull P.B. cases in Brazil have, rather, been implemented in a “bottom-up” basis. This suggest that the role to be played by civil society actors is crutial for the success of the program, participating in all steps of the process


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